Flashcards in CNS Deck (45):
drugs that inc the risk of JC virus infection?
natalizumab (targets alpha 4 integrin), rituximab
mech of PML (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)?
- demyelination of CNS due to destruction of oligodendrocytes
- associated with JC virus
- rapidly progressive
another name for forebrain?
another name for midbrain?
another name for hindbrain?
forebrain (prosencephalon) gives rise to
midbrain (mesencephalon) gives rise to
midbrain contains what structure?
hindbrain (rhombencephalon) gives rise to
metencephalon gives rise to
myelencephalon gives rise to
overlying ectoderm to diff into neuroectoderm and form neural plate
neural plate gives rise to
1. neural tube
2. neural crest cells
alar plate is
dorsal and is sensory
basal plate is
ventral and is motor
what structures belong to neuroectoderm?
1. CNS neurons,
2. ependymal cells (inner lining of ventricles)
what makes CSF?
2 structures from neural crest?
1. PNS neurons
2. Schwann cells
structure from mesoderm?
benign childhood tumor associated with "tooth enamel like appearance?"
characteristics of craniopharyngioma?
1. may be confused with "pituitary adenoma"
2. bitemporal hemianopia
3. most common childhood supratentorial tumor
4. from Rathke pouch (Adenohypophysis)
5. calcification common
the only supratentorial childhood tumor?
what path is associated with hyperphosphorylated tau protein?
what path is associated with silver staining spherical tau protein?
Frontotemporal dementia (Pick's dz)
what path is associated with alpha synuclein defect?
Lewy body dementia
is ACh inc or dec in Alzheimer?
what is the cause for communicating hydrocephalus?
dec CSF absorption by arachnoid granulations
what 2 structures make CSF?
1. ependymal cells
2. choroid plexus
what path is associated with arachnoid scarring post-meningitis?
what is normal pressure hydrocephalus?
1. affects elderly
2. CSF pressue elevated only episodically
3. no increased subarachnoid space volume
4. expansion of ventricles --> distorts fibers of corona radiata
what is the mech of clinical symptoms in normal pressure hydrocephalus?
expansion of ventricles --> distorts fibers of corona radiata leading to urinary incontinence, ataxia, cognitive dysfunction
mech of ex vacuo
appearance of inc CSF due to dec brain tissue seen in Alzhemier dz, advanced HIV, Pick
is ICP inc or dec in communicating hydrocephalus?
is ICP inc or dec in ex vacuo ventriculomegaly?
what is Charcot-Marie-Tooth dz?
known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, groups of progressive hereditary nerve disorders related to the defective production of proteins involved in the structure and function of peripheral nerves or the myelin sheath
what path is associated with scoliosis and foot deformities (high or flat arches)?
Charcot-Marie-Tooth dz (HMSN = Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy)
what enzyme is missing in Krabbe?
what enzyme is missing in Gaucher dz?
what enzyme is missing in metachromatic leukodystrophy?
arylsulfatase A def
what metabolite is accumulated in metachromatic leukodystrophy?
what path is associated with central and peripheral demyelination with ataxia, dementia?
what path is associated with disrupt metabolism of very long chain fatty acids?
adrenoleukodystrophy due to def of peroxisomal acyl CoA synthase
what are the symptoms of adrenoleukodystrophy?
excessive FA buildup in nervous system, adrenal gland, testes leading to coma/death and adrenal gland crisis