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Flashcards in Repro Deck (28):
1

what are examples of mesodermal defects?

VACTERL
Vertebral defects
Anal atresia
Cardiac defects
Tracheo-Esophageal fistula
Renal defects
Limb defects (bone and muscles)

2

genes involved in ant-post axis patterning?

sonic hedgehog (holoprosenphaly)

3

produced at apical ectodermal ridge, necessary for dorsal-ventral axis patterning?

Wnt 7

4

which gene stimulates mitosis and provides "lengthening of limbs?"

FGF

5

gene involved in segmental organization of embryo in craniocaudal direction

homeobox (Hox)

6

what can homeobox (hox) gene mutation lead to?

appendages in wrong locations

7

when does a fetus has cardiac activity visible by transvaginal ultrasound?

week 6

8

when does a fetus have genitalia male/female characteristics?

week 10

9

where does the gastrulation start?

with the epiblast invaginating to form the primitive streak

10

what is the benign Rathke pouch tumor with cholesterol crystals, calcification?

Craniopharyngioma

11

what gene is associated with both ovary and breast cancer?

BRCA1

12

the most common benign ovarian neoplasm?

serous cystadenoma (often bilateral)

13

what is the benign tumor that has multiloculated, large, and lined by mucus-secreting epithelium?

mucinous cystadenoma

14

what is the benign tumr that has endometriosis (ectopic endometrial tissue) within ovary with cyst formation?

endometrioma

15

what are the symptoms of endometrioma?

pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia (pain during sex), varying symptoms with menstrual cycle

16

what is another name for dermoid cyst?

mature cystic teratoma

17

what is a benign tumor associated with functional thyroid tissue and hyperthyroidism (struma ovarii)?

mature cystic teratoma = dermoid cyst

18

tumor associated with solid tumor with pale yellow tan that is encapsulated with Coffee bean nuclei

Brenner tumor

19

benign tumor associated with spindle shaped fibroblast?

fibromas

20

what cell produces mullerian inhibitory factor?

sertoli cell

21

what cell produces testosterone?

leydig cell

22

what is the role of DHT (dihydrotestosterone)?

converts genital tubercle, urogenital sinus into male external genitalia, prostate

23

how would you diff 5 alpha reductase def and androgen insensitivity syndrome?

high testosterone in androgen insensitivity whereas normal testosterone in 5 alpha reductase def.

24

which disorder is associated with scant sexual hair and lack of uterus and fallopian tube?

androgen insensitivity syndrome

25

another name for paramesonephric duct?

mullerian duct

26

another name for wolffian duct

mesonephric duct

27

what is the origin of paramesonephric duct?

lower portion from urogenital sinus

28

what will lack of sertoli cell or lack of MIF lead to?

1. develop both male and female internal organs
2. develop male external genitalia