Flashcards in path page 229 - 233 Deck (47):
what tissue mediator is associated with induction of vascular remodeling and smooth muscle cell migration?
what tissue mediator stimulates fibroblast growth for collagen synthesis?
what stimulates angiogenesis? (Name 2.)
enzyme responsible for tissue remodeling?
name 3 roles of TGF-B
3. cell cycle arrest
what stimulates cell growth via tyrosine kinase?
EGF binds to EGFR which is expressed by what gene?
name 2 mediators that stimulate angiogenesis?
name 3 phases of wound healing process?
1. inflammatory (up to 3 days after wound)
2. proliferative (day3 - weeks)
3. remodeling (1week - 6 months after wound)
what wound healing process is associated with deposition of granulation tissue and collagen, agniogeneiss and epithelial cell proliferation?
proliferative (3days - weeks)
during what period does type 3 collagen is replaced by type 1?
remodeling (1 week - 6+ months)
what is the advantage of having type 1 collagen instead of type 3?
higher tensile strength of tissue
metalloproteinase works during what phase of wound healing process?
remodeling (1 week - 6 month)
what wound phase healing is associated with dissolution of clot and wound contraction?
proliferative (day3 - 1 week)
which cell mediates wound contraction?
at what point does macrophage clear debris?
2 days after the wound
what are the 3 main mediators during the inflammatory phase of wound healing?
platelets, neutrophils, macrophages
why is it important to test for latent TB before you give anti-TNF therapy?
anti-TNF drugs can cause sequestering granulomas to break down, leading to disseminated dz
what causes inc ESR?
production of inflammation such as fibrinogen coats RBCs and cause aggregation making RBC aggregates faster during inflammation
Name 5 conditions that give you dec ESR
1. sickle cell anemia
why does polycythemia lead to dec ESR?
b/c inc RBC number leads to diluted aggregation factors such as fibrinogen
what 6 conditions give you inc ESR?
1. most anemias
6. autoimmune dz
why is it that you get dec ESR in sickle cell anemia?
b/c of the altered shape
in what type of irreversible condition would you see giant cells with single large nucleus or several nuclei?
fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm
what is an example of desmoplasia?
linitis plastica in diffuse stomach cancer
what GI path is associated with "linitis plastica?"
stomach cancer (diffuse)
loss of structural differentiation and function of cells resembling primitive cells of same tissue
what is P-glycoprotein also known as?
multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)
what cancers are associated with multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)?
adrenal cell carcinoma, colon/liver cancer cells
what change is associated with loss of cellular orientation, shape, and size?
cell cell contact is lost by
inactivation of E cadherin
in "seed and soil" theory of metastasis, provide example of seed and soil
seed = tumor embolus
soil = target organ is often the first encountered capillary bed (liver, lungs, bone, brain etc)
what type of amyloidosis is associated with fibrils composed of beta2-microglobulin in pts with ESRD who is on long term dialysis
what symptom may present with dialysis related amyloidosis?
carpal tunnel syndrome
what is the example of heritable amyloidosis?
familial amyloid polyneuropathies
what is the defect in familial amyloid polyneuropathies?
due to transthyretin gene mutation
name all the pathologies associated with primary (AL) amyloidosis
1. plasma cell disorder (multiple myeloma)
2. nephrotic syndrome
3. restrictive cardiomyopathy
name all the symptoms that can be present with primary (AL) amyloidosis?
1. cardiac (arrhythmia)
2. hematologic (easy bruising, splenomegaly)
3. GI (hepatomegaly)
4. neurologic (neuropathy)
what type of amyloidosis is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions?
in secondary amyloidosis what is the fibril made of?
serum amyloid A (SAA) which becomes AA
what happens in age related (senile) systemic amyloidosis?
deposition of normal (wild type) transthyretin in myocardium and other sites
name examples of organ specific amyloidosis?
Alzheimer dz, DM2
explain the formation of deposit in Alzheimer
deposition of beta amyloid protein cleaved from amyloid precursor protein
what deposit is seen in DM2?
Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP)
in DM2, islet amyloid polypeptide is cause by deposition of
amylin in pancreatic islets