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Flashcards in path page 229 - 233 Deck (47):
1

what tissue mediator is associated with induction of vascular remodeling and smooth muscle cell migration?

PDGF

2

what tissue mediator stimulates fibroblast growth for collagen synthesis?

PDGF

3

what stimulates angiogenesis? (Name 2.)

FGF, VEFG

4

enzyme responsible for tissue remodeling?

metalloproteinases

5

name 3 roles of TGF-B

1. angiogenesis
2. fibrosis
3. cell cycle arrest

6

what stimulates cell growth via tyrosine kinase?

EGF

7

EGF binds to EGFR which is expressed by what gene?

ERBB2

8

name 2 mediators that stimulate angiogenesis?

FGF, TGF-B

9

name 3 phases of wound healing process?

1. inflammatory (up to 3 days after wound)
2. proliferative (day3 - weeks)
3. remodeling (1week - 6 months after wound)

10

what wound healing process is associated with deposition of granulation tissue and collagen, agniogeneiss and epithelial cell proliferation?

proliferative (3days - weeks)

11

during what period does type 3 collagen is replaced by type 1?

remodeling (1 week - 6+ months)

12

what is the advantage of having type 1 collagen instead of type 3?

higher tensile strength of tissue

13

metalloproteinase works during what phase of wound healing process?

remodeling (1 week - 6 month)

14

what wound phase healing is associated with dissolution of clot and wound contraction?

proliferative (day3 - 1 week)

15

which cell mediates wound contraction?

myofibroblast

16

at what point does macrophage clear debris?

2 days after the wound

17

what are the 3 main mediators during the inflammatory phase of wound healing?

platelets, neutrophils, macrophages

18

why is it important to test for latent TB before you give anti-TNF therapy?

anti-TNF drugs can cause sequestering granulomas to break down, leading to disseminated dz

19

what causes inc ESR?

production of inflammation such as fibrinogen coats RBCs and cause aggregation making RBC aggregates faster during inflammation

20

Name 5 conditions that give you dec ESR

1. sickle cell anemia
2. polycythemia
3. HF
4. Microcytosis
5. Hypofibrinogenemia

21

why does polycythemia lead to dec ESR?

b/c inc RBC number leads to diluted aggregation factors such as fibrinogen

22

what 6 conditions give you inc ESR?

1. most anemias
2. infections
3. inflammation
4. cancer
5. pregnancy
6. autoimmune dz

23

why is it that you get dec ESR in sickle cell anemia?

b/c of the altered shape

24

in what type of irreversible condition would you see giant cells with single large nucleus or several nuclei?

anaplasia

25

define desmoplasia

fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm

26

what is an example of desmoplasia?

linitis plastica in diffuse stomach cancer

27

what GI path is associated with "linitis plastica?"

stomach cancer (diffuse)

28

define anaplasia

loss of structural differentiation and function of cells resembling primitive cells of same tissue

29

what is P-glycoprotein also known as?

multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)

30

what cancers are associated with multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)?

adrenal cell carcinoma, colon/liver cancer cells

31

what change is associated with loss of cellular orientation, shape, and size?

dysplasia

32

cell cell contact is lost by

inactivation of E cadherin

33

in "seed and soil" theory of metastasis, provide example of seed and soil

seed = tumor embolus
soil = target organ is often the first encountered capillary bed (liver, lungs, bone, brain etc)

34

what type of amyloidosis is associated with fibrils composed of beta2-microglobulin in pts with ESRD who is on long term dialysis

dialysis related

35

what symptom may present with dialysis related amyloidosis?

carpal tunnel syndrome

36

what is the example of heritable amyloidosis?

familial amyloid polyneuropathies

37

what is the defect in familial amyloid polyneuropathies?

due to transthyretin gene mutation

38

name all the pathologies associated with primary (AL) amyloidosis

1. plasma cell disorder (multiple myeloma)
2. nephrotic syndrome
3. restrictive cardiomyopathy

39

name all the symptoms that can be present with primary (AL) amyloidosis?

1. cardiac (arrhythmia)
2. hematologic (easy bruising, splenomegaly)
3. GI (hepatomegaly)
4. neurologic (neuropathy)

40

what type of amyloidosis is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions?

AA secondary

41

in secondary amyloidosis what is the fibril made of?

serum amyloid A (SAA) which becomes AA

42

what happens in age related (senile) systemic amyloidosis?

deposition of normal (wild type) transthyretin in myocardium and other sites

43

name examples of organ specific amyloidosis?

Alzheimer dz, DM2

44

explain the formation of deposit in Alzheimer

deposition of beta amyloid protein cleaved from amyloid precursor protein

45

what deposit is seen in DM2?

Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP)

46

in DM2, islet amyloid polypeptide is cause by deposition of

amylin in pancreatic islets

47

what is Lipofuscin formed by?

oxidation and polymerization of autophagocytosed organellar membranes