endo p 317 - 321 Flashcards Preview

Step 1 Crush 250! - Hans > endo p 317 - 321 > Flashcards

Flashcards in endo p 317 - 321 Deck (58):
1

what is another name for growth hormone?

somatotropin

2

what are the 3 functions of growth hormone?

1. stimulates linear growth
2. stimulates muscle mass
3. inc insulin resistance (diabetogenic)

3

growth hormone stimulates muscle mass through

IGF-1 (somatomedin C)

4

2 functions of ghrelin?

1. stimulates hunger (orexigenic effet)
2. release GH via GH secretagog receptor

5

ghrelin is produced by

stomach

6

ghrelin is inc with what 2 conditions?

1. inc with sleep loss
2. prader-willi syndrome

7

leptin is

satiety hormone

8

leptin is made by

adipose tissue

9

mutation is what gene causes congenital obesity?

mutation of leptin gene

10

what condition leads to dec leptin production?

sleep deprivation

11

what stimulates cortical reward centers and inc desire for high fat foods?

endocannabinoids

12

what receptor regulates serum osmolarity and blood pressure?

V1 - receptors --> regulate bp
V2 --> regulate osmolarity

13

antidiuretic hormone is synthesized in

supraoptic nuclei in hypothalamus

14

name hormones/signaling pathways associated with intrinsic tyrosine kinase

insulin, IGF-1, FGF, PDGF, EGF, MAP kinase pathway, (think growth factors)

15

calcitonin opposes the action of

PTH

16

calcitonin blocks what type of bone cell?

osteoclast

17

zona fasciculata produces

glucocorticoids

18

zona reticularis produces

androgens

19

zona glomerulosa produces

mineralocorticoid

20

ACTH stimulates what enzyme?

cholesterol desmolase

21

cholesterol desmolase is inhibited by

ketoconazole

22

cholesterol desmolase converts cholesterol to

pregnenolone

23

what are the 2 roles of 17 alpha hydroxylase?

1. converts pregnenolone to 17-hydroxypregnenolone
2. converts pregesterone to 17-hydroxypregnenolone

24

2 drugs that block aromatase

anastrozole, exemestane

25

what blocks 5 alpha reductase?

finasteride

26

symptoms of 17 alpha hydroxylase def in XY/XX

XY: ambiguous genitalia, undescended testes
XX: lacks secondary sexual development

27

what blocks the conversion of cortisol to cortisone?

glycyrrhetic acid

28

what stimulates aldosterone synthase?

angiotensin II

29

what enzyme def is associated with dec renin?

11 beta hydroxylase

30

what enzyme def is associated with inc renin and inc 17 hydroxy progesterone?

21-hydroxylase

31

2 reasons that cortisol inc blood pressure

1. upregulates alpha 1 receptors on arterioles --> inc sensitivity to norepinephrine and epinephrine
2. at high conc., can bind to aldosterone receptor

32

what property of cortisol lead to purple striae?

dec fibroblast activity

33

cortisol dec bone formation by dec activity of what cell?

osteoblast

34

what is the level of renin and aldosterone in 17 alpha hydroxylase def?

low renin, low aldo

35

what is the potassium level high or low in 17 alpha hydroxylase def?

low

36

what explains the low serum K+ in 17 alpha hydroxylase def?

11-deoxycorticosterone acts similar to aldoesterone leading to hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis

37

what congenital adrenal enzyme def mimics addison dz?

21 hydroxylase def (b/c of high ACTH and low cortisol, hyperkalemia)

38

what congenital adrenal enzyme def mimics conn's syndrome?

both 17 alpha hydroxylase def and 11 beta hydroxylase def (b/c of low renin activity, hypokalemia due to high 11 DOC)

39

how is cortisol regulated?

CRH from hypothalamus stimulates ACTH release from pituitary that stimulates cortisol production in adrenal zona fasciculata

40

describe the effect of excess cortisol on CRH, ACTH?

dec CRH, dec ACTH

41

what acid/alkalosis disturbance can lead to hypocalcemia?

alkalosis (inc pH) --> inc affinity of albumin to bind Ca2+, leading to hypocalcemia

42

symptoms of hypocalcemia?

cramps, pain, paresthesias, carpopedal spasm

43

what are the effects of inc sex hormone binding globulin in men and women?

in men, inc SHBG leads to low free testosterone --> gynecomastia

in women, dec SHBG leads to inc free testosterone --> hirsutism

44

what 2 conditions lead to inc SHBG in women?

OCPs, pregnancy (b/c estrogen inc SHBG synthesis)

45

name the 4 functions of parathyroid hormone

1. inc bone resorption of Ca2+ and PO43-
2. inc kidney reabsorption of Ca2+ in distal convoluted tubule
3. dec reabsorption of PO43- in proximal convoluted tubule
4. inc 1, 25 (OH)2D3 (calcitriol) production by stimulating kidney 1 alpha hydroxylase in proximal convoluted tubule

46

explain how PTH leads to the activation of osteoclast which leads to inc serum Ca2+

inc production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor and RANK-L (receptor activator of NF-KB ligand)

47

RANK-L (ligand) is secreted by

osteoblast

48

RANK (receptor) is on what cell?

osteoclast

49

how does RANK-L and RANK interact to stimulate Ca2+ release?

RANK-L (ligand) secreted by osteoblasts and osteocytes binds RANK (receptor) on osteoclasts and their precursors to stimulate osteoclasts and inc Ca2+

50

will low serum Mg2+ stimulate or inhibit PTH secretion?
what about very low serum Mg2+?

stimulate PTH (however, very low serum Mg2+ dec PTH)

51

name 4 common causes of low serum Mg2+, thus can cause hyperparathyroidism

1. diarrhea
2. aminoglycoside
3. diuretics
4. alcohol

52

name all the hormones that use cAMP

FLAT ChAMP

FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
CRH
hCG
ADH (V2 receptor)
MSH
PTH
calcitonin
GHRH
glucagon

53

name all the hormones that use cGMP

ANP, BNP, NO

54

name all the hormones that use IP3

GOAT HAG

GnRH
Oxytocin
ADH
TRH
Histamine
Angiotensin II
Gastrin

55

name all the hormones that use receptor-associated tyrosine kinase

PIGGLET

Prolactin
Immunomodulators (cytokines, IL-2, IL-6, IFN)
GH
G-CSF
Erythropoietin
Thrombopoietin

56

2 functions of vit D?

1. inc absorption of dietary Ca2+ and PO43-
2. inc bone resorption --> inc Ca2+ and PO43- absorption

57

what form of vit D is from sun exposure?

D3

58

what form of vit D is from ingested from plants?

D2