CP2 chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CP2 chapter 7 Deck (63):
1

physical agents

used to promote tissue healing for individuals who experience a disalitlity as a result of injury, diease, or loss of a body part

2

application of heat and cold

therapeutically to treat conditions such as infection and trauma

3

dry heat

heating pad, chemical hot pack

4

moist heat

hot soak, hot compress

5

dry cold

ice bag, chemical cold pack

6

moist cold

cold compress

7

how long should heat and cold be applied for?

15-30 minutes

8

prolonged application of heat or cold

adverse secondary effects

9

factors affecting application of heat and cold

age
location
impaired circulation
impaired sensation
individual tolerance to change in temperature

10

local effects of heat

dilates the vessels = increased blood supply

11

erythema

reddening of the skin caused by dilation of superficial blood vessels in the skin

12

effects of heat

promote healing

13

purpose of applying heat

relieve pain, congestion, muscle spasms, and inflammation

14

when heat should be applied

back pain, arthritis, menstrual cramps, abscesses

15

edema (heat)

swelling

16

exudate (heat)

discharge produced by the body's tissues

17

suppuration (heat)

process of pus formation

18

when is heat not recommended?

initial treatment of acute inflammation or trauma

19

don'ts for heating

never lay on it
don't increase heat over time
use protective covering
don't bend or crush heating pad
don't put pins through the heating pad
don't use heating pad over moist areas

20

what types of ice should you use?

small pieces so they can mold to the affected area

21

where should you store cold packs?

room temp and discard after use

22

soak

direct immersion of a body part in water or a medicated solution

23

local effects of cold

constricts blood vessels

24

purpose of applying cold

prevent edema

25

cold should be applied immediately after

direct trauma (bruise, minor burn, sprain, strain, joint injury fracture)

26

how does cold relieve pain?

temporarily through its anesthetic or numbing effect

27

when are casts most often used?

fracture

28

healing time with casts

4-6 weeks

29

casts

used to support and stalbize weak or dislocated joints, to promote healing after a surgical correction

30

orthopedist

physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system

31

pressure area

when the cast presses or rubs against the pts skin and prevents adequate circulation to the area

32

where do most pressure areas occur?

bony prominences

33

plaster cast

easily molded to allow for swelling

34

synthetic

knitted fabric tape
most common***

35

most common synthetic cast

fiberglass

36

synthetic advantages

dry and set more quickly
weigh less
less restrictive
less bulky
moisture resistant

37

synthetic disadvantages

can't be molded as easily
more expensive
rougher surface

38

stockinette

provide patient comfort and to cover the rough edges at the ends of the cast

39

cast padding

prevent pressure areas and to shield the pts skin when the cast is removed

40

maceration

softening and breaking down of the skin, which can lead to infection

41

symptoms to report

increase in pain
tingling
cold
chills
foul odor
sore area

42

splints

used to support and immobilize a displaced or fractured part of the body

43

when are splints most used?

protect areas that are sprained or strained

44

brace

support a part of the body and hold it in its correct position

45

short leg walker

leg brace (for fractures)

46

ambulation

walking

47

ambulatory

able to walk as opposed to being confined to a wheelchair or a bed

48

crutches

remove weight from legs and transfer to the arms

49

axillary crutches

most frequently used

50

forearm crutches

pt can release the handgrip, enabling use of the hands
(paraplegic or cerebral palsy

51

axillary crutch measurement

2 fingers from axilla

52

crutch palsy

muscular weakness in the forearm, wrist, and hand

53

tripod gait

X

54

four point gait

X

55

two point gait

X

56

three point gait

X

57

swing to gait and swing through gait

X

58

canes

used to help provide balance and support to those with hemiparesis, joint disabilities, defects of the neuromuscular system

59

what side do you hold the cane on?

the good side

60

angle for elbow with cane

25-30 degrees

61

what foot do you move first with a cane?

bad leg

62

walkers

pts with weakness and balance problems or during the healing process of knee or hip joint replacement surgery

63

how far ahead should you move the walker?

6"