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Flashcards in CVS Deck (189):
1

Fixed splitting

ASD

2

Long QT interval predisposes to

Torsades de pointes

3

Congenital long QT syndrome associated with

Sensory neural deafness

4

PSVT rx

caroid massage, valslva, IV adenosine , beta blocker

5

Holiday heart

AF

6

TOF

PS ( important prognostic)
RVH
Overriding aorta
VSD

7

Rubella triad

Cataract sensory neural deafness PDA

8

Hyaline arteriosclerosis

Essential HT
DM

9

Hyperplastic arteriosclerosis

Malignant HT ( onion skinning)

10

Pericardial knock

Constrictive pericarditis

11

Wegners granulomatosis cf

Nasal ulcer
Necrotizing granuloma lung
RPGN

12

Nitrates AE

Reflex tachycardia

13

inferior wall of heart supplied by

right coronary artery by PDA

14

s3 and s4 nick names

s3 ventricular gallop (increased filling pressures MR)
s4 atrial kick

15

click in MVP is

mid-systolic (sudden tensing of chordae tendinae)

16

increased severity of MS

decreased distance between S2 and OS

17

progressive lengthening of PR interval and drop

2nd degree mobitz type I

18

BNP blood test for

heart failure

19

hypertensive urgency cut off

180/120

20

heart problem in infant of diabetic mother

TGV

21

cut of for antigina

75%

22

autoimmune fibrinous pericarditis: name and time

dressler syndrome (after 2 weeks to months)

23

post-infarction fibrinous pericarditis time

1-3 days

24

3 things in constrictive pericarditis

pulsus paradoxus (also in cardiac tamponade)
pericardial knock
kusmaul sign

25

arteritis: pulse less disease

takayasu arteritis

26

arteritis: jaw claudication

temporal/giant cell

27

arteritis: melena

PAN

28

arteritis: coronary aneursism

kawasaki disease

29

nimodipine indication

SAH

30

fenoldapam indication and MOA

D1 agonist, hypertensive emergency (enhances RBF)

31

hydralazine is the opposite of X
and both have same SE: what is that?

nitrates (nitrate more on vein)
but both cause reflex tachycardia

32

classify lipid lowering

statins, bile acid resins, ezetimibe, fibrates and niacin

33

special effects of statin, fibrates and niacin

statin LDL
fibrates TG
niacin increase HDL

34

PPARa activating lipid lowering drug

fibrates

35

anti-arrythmic Class I effect

reduce slope of depolarization

36

anti-arrythmic Class II effect

decrease slope of phase 4 and prolonged repolarization

37

anti-arrythmic Class III effect and code for names

prolonged repolarization (AIDS)
amiodarone, ibutilde, dofetilide, sotalol

38

anti-arrythmic Class IV effect

slow rise of phase0 and prolonged repolarization

39

PFO ASD which is more common

PFO

40

valve of foramen ovale

septum primum

41

increased pulse pressure

isolated SHT (aorta stiffening)
obstructive sleep apnea (increased sympatheic tone)

42

pulse pressure in AR and AS

AR increase AS decrease

43

digitalis is an INDIRECT blocker of

exhanger

44

metabolic conditions that reduce contractility

acidosis, hypoxia and hypercapnia

45

veno arterio botho dilators

veno nitrates, hydralazine arterioles
botho ACEI

46

DCM is - dysfunction

systolic (reduced contractility)

47

DHP sensitive

amlodipine

48

S3 pathologic conditions

MR, DCM, HF (increased ventricullar filling pressure during rapid filling) Problem if already full
Lt lateral position (same as S4)

49

S4 condition

HCM (stiff LV) Lt lateral position
sign of diastolic dysfuction

50

wide splitting (delay RV emptying)

PS, RBBB (note: paradoxial split occurs with AS and LBBB)

51

splitting and inspiration

increases

52

Lt sternal border murmers

AR PR (diastolic)
HCM (systolic)

53

PDA murmer where

continous, left infra-claviular

54

triscuspid area extra murmers

VSD and ASD

55

inspiration and murmer

increases Rt sided

56

All procedures except hand grip affect

venour return (hand grip afterload)

57

hand grip and murmer

increase for all regurgiation murers
decreased in HCM and AS
HCM and MVP go together

58

all procedures other than hand grip, think about VR and increase pre-load

less HCM murmer and incrased AS
HCM and MVP go together

59

pulsus parvus et tardus
radiates to where

AS (week pulses with delayed peak)
SAD (syncope, angina and dyspnoea)
radiates to carotids

60

sever MR will have
MR murmer increases when

S3
inspiration

61

severe AR

long murmer (holo diastolic) and signs of hyperdynamic

62

QRS complex length

120msec

63

T wave inversion indicates

recent MI

64

U wave

hypokalemia bradycardia

65

torsades pointes electrolyte risk

low K and Mg
Rx with mg sulphate

66

ABCDE of torsades

arrythmic (quiindine and sotalol) IA and III
Biotics (macrolides)
cychotic (haloperidol)
depressents (TCA)
Emetics (ondansetron)
antimalairiasl (quinine and cholorqine)

67

brugada syndrome

psudeo RBBB and ST elevation in V1 to V3
increased risk of ventri arrytmia and SCD
Rx ICD

68

WPW synrome

delta wave
less PR
wide QRS
Bundle of kent

69

saw tooth

flutter (saw tooth are regular p waves)

70

definitive treatment for flutter

cathetor ablation

71

no identifiable waves in

vent fibrillation

72

1st degree block

long PR

73

Mobi II drop

sudden drop (prolong and drop in I)

74

ANP and BNP MOA

opposite to aldosteroe

75

HF treatment with BNP drug name

nesiritide(BNP is diagnostic too)

76

PCWP increased in

MS

77

cardiac chamber pressures

5 25/5 25/20
12 130/10 130/90

78

aorta position in TGV

anterior

79

formation and spiral absent

formation PTruncus A
spiral TGV

80

frequeccncy of VSD

VSD ASD PDA

81

common defect in VSD

osteum secondum

82

coarcation of aorta two risk

dissection and berry

83

differential cyanosis

late PDA

84

fredrick ataxia heart defect

HCM

85

heart defect alcohol

all left to right and TOF

86

heart defect rubella

PDA and PS

87

heart defect diabetes

TGV

88

heart defect marfan

MVP THORACIC aneurism and dissection

89

turner syndrom heart defect

coaration of aorta and biscupid aortic value

90

williams syndome heart defect

supra valvular AS

91

22q11 heart defect

persistent truncus and TOF

92

tubercuous sclerois heart defect

rhabdomyoma

93

HT emergency vs urgency

emergency for end organ damage (180/120)

94

medial canfific sclerosis other name

monkeberg (calcification and pipestem)

95

plane xanthoma

1o biliary cirrhoiss

96

code for athero arteries

AbCo PoCa

97

thoraric acotic aneurism

non athero (marfan symphilis hypertension )
athero: abdominal

98

aortic dissection RF

hypertenstion

99

stanford A

ascending involved
B means ascenidng not involved
B for treatment with beta blocker

100

rx for prinzmetal angina

CCB (note: sumatriptan and ergonovine drugs can ppt)
also tobacco and cocaine

101

two drugs causing coronory steal syndrome

adenosine and dipyrdiamole

102

LAD bypass

alone=left intrnal mammary
multiple: saphenous

103

troponin I

4 hous last long (7-10 days) very speicific

104

CKMB

6-12 hours, normal in 48 hours, not so specific but good for re-infrt

105

peaked T wave in MI due to

localized hyperklemia

106

ST for transmural and subendocardial

ST elevation and depreassion

107

ECG localization

anteroseptal-V1V2 (LAD)
Anteroapical_v3,v4 (LAD)
Anterolateral-v5,v6 (LAD/LCX)
lateral (LCX) I, aVL
Inferrion, II, III, aVF

108

dyskineisa in doppler

true aneurism outward bulge during contraction

109

STEMI best Rx

percutaenous coronory intervention

110

HCM micro

myofiber disarray, interstitial fibrosis

111

DCM causes

A alcohol
B beri beri
C chaga
C coxB
C Cocaine
D Doxo

112

HOCM which walve

mitral

113

loffler syn

endomyocardial fibrosis with eosinophilic infiltrate

114

a few causes of restrictive CardioM

amylo, sarco
post radiation endocardial fibroelastosis (endocardium of children)

115

three causes of HCM

familal -beta myosin heavy chain
fredrick
c/c HT

116

help CHF mortality

ACE beta, spironolactone (aldosterone antagonists)

117

3 problems ith CHF compen

RAA and symahethic tone ,
both increase afterload
ADH

118

primary insult in hge shock (pre, after and CO)

reduced preload (CVP low), CO less, after load more

119

primary insult in cardiogenic shock(pre, after and CO)

less CO preload and after load more

120

primary insult in obstructive shock(pre, after and CO)

less CO preload and after load more

121

primary insult in distributiee shock(pre, after and CO)

less afte load (sepsis) (note: it is a high output failure) and preload will be less

122

bacterial endocarditis 6 types and causes

standard aureus
IV drug arues
suba/c, diseased value viridans
prostheic epidermidid
cutlure neg coxeilla
gallolyticsu colon ca

123

three names in endocarditis

osler nodes
roth (retinal white)
janeway (remember picutre)

124

what GN in endocarditis

DPGN (due to immune complexes)

125

JONES

joint
heart
node
erytema marginatum
ydenham chorea (basal ganglia mimicry)

126

pericardial rub

pericarditis

127

beck triad

hypotenstion, distended neck veins and distant heart soudns
also increase HR and pulsus pardoxus and electrical aternans

128

distended neck veins two DD

cardiac tamponade and tension pneumothorax

129

p. paradoxus and causes

no pulse in inpsiration
tamponade, const. pericarditis
asthma, cor pulomonale, obst. sleep apnoe, croup

130

classify confusing pericardium

serious: tampanade and tension
not serious: pericaridits and constrictive pericarditis
rub and knock
p. paradoxus and kuss maul in construction

131

cardiac tumors adult and children

myxoma (ball valve) mucopolysaccradie stroma
rbabdomyoma (t. sclresosis)

132

kussmaul define

increase in JVP during inspiration instead of normal decrease

133

lymphocytes infiltrate in mycordium

viral mycocarditis

134

hepatic angeiosarcoma two causes

vinyl chorldide and arsenic

135

tumor coming ater post mastectomry lymphedema

angeiosarcoma (firm violacious noduels)
also sun exposed and post radiation

136

vascular tumor that cause ulceration and bleeing

pyogenic granuloma

137

raynaud treatment

CCB (like prinzmetal)

138

cystic hygroma is

cvenous hemangioma of the neck

139

tocilizumab

IL-6 recepor (giant cell) CD4 T cell mediated

140

bindess and polymmyalgia rheumatica

giant cell/temporal

141

PAN vessels invllvement

viseral abd pain and melena
renal aneurism
skin purpura/livedo retinularis
(not pulmonary involvment)

142

PAN hist and Rx

transmural inlammation with firboid nexrosis
HepB+
cyclocphosphamide and seroids

143

wegners CF

URT, LRT and renal (RPGN/cresntic)
c-ANCA (PR3)

144

microscopic polyngitis different from wegner

NO URT
p-anca (MPO)
pauciimmune GN
No granuloma (in the name)

145

peripheral neurophaty which vasculitis

churg strass
also pauci immune and pANCA
granuoma+
(necrotising vasculaits with granlom like wegners)
IgG and eosinophil

146

triad of HSP

skin purpura, abd pain and bleeding and artharlia

147

renal in HSP

IgA necphropathy (berger disease)

148

first choice of drug in HT gneral population

diretics

149

pregnancy hyper tension

hydra LMN
lbetalol, methdy dopa, nifedipine

150

CCB for HT emergency

nicardipine and clevidipine

151

nitroprusside and hydralazine nirates, ANP and BNP and NO MOA

cGMP

152

reflex tachcardia with nitrate Rx

beta blocker (this is a god combination) both reduces O demand
verapamil is equal to beta blockers in effect

153

two patial beta agonists CI in angina
beta for emergency HT

pindolol and acebutlol
labetaol

154

statin what else other than HMG CoA

increase LDL receptor on liver and increased uptake

155

4 SE of statins

Hepato, myo and lactic
gall stones with fibrates and bile acid resins (they increase choleserol syntehsis)

156

triglyerides in bile acrid resins

increase (only unexpected)

157

ezetimibe only acts on

LDL decrease

158

fibrates what after PPARgamma

upregulate LPL (increase TG clearance) and increase HDL

159

niacin MOA

reduces hepatic VLDL syntheis

160

fibrates SE

myopahty (stone with statin)

161

niacin SE

flushing (NSAIDs), red face
hyper gly and uricmeia

162

SE CCB

flushing, edema (AV block for cardic type)
remember verapamil is like beta blocker

163

statin not metabolized by p450

parvastatin

164

second action of digoxin

stiulate vagus

165

SE digoxin

diagrrrhoe, yellow vision, hyperkaleia and AV block and arrytmia

166

digoxin and hypokaleima

more drug binding

167

digoxin and quinidne

less clearance and diplacement

168

hypertryglyeridemia DOC

fibrates (otehrwise panreatitis)

169

AF rx

regular beta 1 blockers
with CHF digoxin

170

classsify anti-arrythmics

Na (Activted and inactivated) inresase QRS with increased HR
beta
K (reverse use dependence)
Ca

171

1A, 1B AND 1C

disopyramide, quinidine, procainamide
lidocaine, tocainide, mexiletine
morizine, flecainide, propafenone

172

remember class I

A pisa gopuram tilt to right
b both shrunk
b: best post MI
c: stong slope, strong inding and strong dependence
C: CONTRA in structural and IHD
call a CAB

173

class II moa

decreased slope of 4 and prolged repol

174

class II short acting

esmolol

175

class II indi

SVT af, aflutter

176

beta blockers are CI

phEROCHROMOCytomA, COCAIN (unoposed a1)

177

SE quinindine

cinchonism

178

SE procainamide

SLE (like isoniazid)

179

class III names

AIDS

180

amiodarone indication and SE

WPW syndrome
PFT (pul fibrosis), LFT and thyroid FT (iodine)
no torsades
hapten corneal and skin deposits

181

class III moa

increase repol

182

class 4 moa

slow depol and repol

183

adenosine moa

k out and hyperpolarize

184

interaction of adenosine

theophylline and caffiene

185

adenosine se

flushing chest pain, bronchospasm
impending doom

186

angiolathyrism

sweet pea lysil oxidase inhibitor
myxomatous degeneration

187

ivabradine

only rate

188

neprilysin

metalloprotease for anp and bnp

189

neprilysin inhibitor

sacubitril