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Flashcards in Neurology Deck (396):
1

brain anomaly in maternal type I DM

anencephaly

2

In syringomyelia, UMN lesion of lower limb due to

lateral CS tract

3

myelination in CNS

oligodendroglia

4

physical support of CNS

astrocyte (kind of fibroblast of brain)

5

microglia origin

mononuclear

6

vomiting of chemotherapy

area postrema (CTZ)

7

NE from brain: which area

locus ceruleus (pons)

8

5-HT from brain: which area

raphae nuclei (brain stem)

9

satiety center

VM area of HT

10

thalamus is generally for

senses and motor

11

VPL

spinothalamic tract

12

from low to high

your pons will die

13

DOC for benign essential tremor

primidone

14

hemiballismus site

contralateral subthalamic nuclei

15

what aneurism in c/c hypertension

Charcot-bouchard aneurism in deep brain structures

16

Middle MA: bleeding and shape

epidural hematoma (biconvex)

17

bridging veins: bleeding and shape

subdural hematoma(crescent)

18

berry aneurism: bleeding

subarachnoid hge (worst head ache of my life)

19

foramen of monroe

lateral to third ventricle

20

muscle to open jaw

lateral pterygoid

21

what produces aqeuous humor

ciliary body

22

what collects aqeuos humor from anterior chamber

trabecular meshwork

23

Iris dilator and contrictor nerves

dilate alpha 1 and spinctor: M3

24

Effect of myelin in length and time constant

increases length const and decreases time const

25

DOC trigeminal neuralgia

carbamazepine

26

classes of glucoma drug: decreases synthesis

alpha agonists, beta blockers and diuretics

27

classes of glucoma drug: increases outflow

cholinomimetic and prostaglandins

28

gingival hyperplasia SE of

phenytoin

29

common between lamotrigine and valproate

simple, complex, tonic-clonic, absence and as a mood stabilizer

30

shot acting frenzodiazepines

ATOM (alprazolam, Triazolam Oxazepam and Midazolam)

31

malignant hyperthermia seen with (what is the exception)

inhaled anesthetics (but not N2O) and succinyl choline

32

antidote benzodiazepines

flumazenil

33

Drugs that increase outflow of aqueous humor

cholinomimetics and prostaglandin

34

MM of opioid drugs (channels)

open K and close Ca channels

35

opioid toxicity pupil

pin point

36

Indication of butorphanol

severe pain (migraine labor)

37

Ethosuximide MOA

blocks thalamic type Ca channels

38

important side effects of phenytoin

nystagmus diplopia ataxia
gingival hyperplasia hirsuitism

39

gabapentin MOA

inhibit voltage activated Ca channels (originally designed as GABA analog)

40

local anaesthetics MOA

block Na channels

41

two classes of neuromuscular blocing drugs

depolarizing (succinyl choline)
non-depol (curiums)

42

dandtrolne MOA

prevent release of Ca from SR

43

baclofen MOA

activates GABA receptors t spinal cord level

44

cyclobenzaprine what?

centrally acting sk muscle relaxant

45

name dopamine agonist

bromocriptine pergolide (ergot)
pramipexole ropinirole

46

which drug increase dopamine release

amantidine

47

drug that inhibit dopa decarboxyase

carbidopa

48

comt inhibitors used in parkins

tolcapone

49

MAO-B inhibitor used in parkins

selegiline

50

use of benztropine

antimuscarinic in parkins

51

what is memantine

NMDA receptor antagonists for alzheimers

52

principle of treatment in huntingtons disease

block dopamine
VMAT inhibitor (tetrabenazine and reserpine)
D2 antagonist (haloperidol)

53

triptans MOA

5-HT 1B/1D agonists

54

thalamic syndrome nuclei involved

VPL and VPM

55

Zopiderm what and MOA

non-benzodiazepam hypnotics
GABAa receptor agonists

56

Notochord becomes

N pulposus

57

neuroectoderm divides to

neural tube and neural crest

58

primary vesicles of brain

prosen,mesen,rhomben

59

prosen becomes

telen and dien (tele= hemispheres)

60

rhomben becomes

meten adn myelen

61

mesencephalon becomes

pons and cerebellum

62

neural crest develops to

PNS neurons and schwann cells

63

rathkes pouch becomes

ant pituitary and craniopharyngioma

64

confirmatory test for neural tube defect

Ach E in amniotic fluid

65

in meningocele, subarachnoid space

outside

66

anencephaly risk

Type 1DM

67

holoprosencephaly gene and risk factor

sonic hedgehog signalling
patau adn fetal alcohol syndrome

68

dandy walker- 2 features

cerebellar vermis agenesis
cystic enlargement of 4th ventricle

69

chiari 1, age and feature

adult with headache, tonsils herniate

70

hydromelia

Resmy ask me

71

syringomyelia tracts involved

anterior spinal commisure (spinothalamic)
lateral CS tract

72

taste sensation which nucleus

solitary nucleus

73

genioglossus and styloglossus

protrusion and trough maaking

74

palatoglossus N and function

X,elevates posterior tongue

75

hyoglossus function

retract and depress tongue

76

BBB and repair and K+ metabolism

astrocyte

77

saltatory conduction is possible becuase of --- channels

Na+

78

myelin- space constant and conduction velocity

both increases

79

acoustic neuroma, additional nerves

facial and trigeminal

80

schann cell and neuron ratio

1:1

81

oligodendroglia- histology

fried egg

82

oligodendroglia- involved diseases

MS,PML, leukodystrophy

83

meissner corpuscles

hairless skin (only one to remember)

84

merkel disc

finger tip

85

ruffini

slippage along surface

86

paccini

pressure adn vibration

87

free n endings

pain and temp

88

endo and perineurium clinical connection

GB syndrome, micro surgery

89

glioma marker

GFAP

90

depression neurotransmiter

all down (NE,dopamine,serotonin)

91

anxiety what increased

nor epinephrine

92

Ace the

Base

93

No locus

I am scared

94

Dop teg

the nigra

95

sero sympathy for

raphael

96

GABA cumben is

fat

97

CAG- huntington

caudate looses ACH and GABA
(dopamine increased)

98

Ach decreased in

Alzhemiers

99

CTZ location

caudate end of 4th ventricle

100

hunger (lateral) is the

top priority

101

OVLT location and function

hypothalamus and osmosensor

102

paraventricular senate

oxytocin

103

PPRF which part of sleep

REM

104

melatonin pathway

SCN- Nor- pineal- melatonin

105

treatment for bedwetting and sleep terror/walking

ADH and benzodiazines

106

b waves- sleep

REM (penis) and open eye

107

chew your

sleep spindles and K complexes

108

beta vs delta

low amplitude and high frequency is beta

109

non REM sleep

TSD (sleep walking, tremor, bed wetting)

110

VPM and VL of thalamus

face and taste
VL= motor

111

VPL of thalamus

limb sensation

112

what is not relayed in thalamus

olfaction

113

ant and post part of limbic system

angulate gyrus adn hippocampus

114

limbic system function

feeding, feeling, fleeing, fighting

115

locked in syndrome

CPM (also involve 1X,X,X1 neres)
aks ODS

116

deep nuclei from lateral to medial

DEGF

117

2 input and 1 output of cerebellem

ICP and MCP
Output is SCP(purking- nucleus-SCP)

118

cerebellem represents --- in lesions

body
lateral- limbs, falls to ipsilateral side
midline- trunkal ataxia

119

what constitutes vestibulo cerebellum

inf vermis adn flocculonodular lobe (nystagmus and vertigo)

120

direct pathway inhibit GPi

directly

121

indirect pathway activate GPi

indirectly thru STN inhibition

122

lentiform nucleus is

lenti shaped (putamen and GP)
stiatum is putamen and caudate

123

choreoathetosis define and disease

chorea- jerky
athetosis- writhing
huntingtons disease

124

drug causing dystonia

metochlopramide

125

DOC for benign essential tremor

primidone (b blockers too), metabolised to phenobarbital

126

tremors

resting-parkinson
intention- cerbellum
essential- anxiety and posture

127

hemiballismus diagnosis

C/L subthalamic nuclei (lacunar stroke)

128

eg of myoclonus

hiccups

129

pathology of parkinson

lewy bodies (a synuclein- intra cellular eosinophilic inclusions)

130

genetics of huntington and frederick

AD (fred is recessive)
4 (fred is 9)

131

neuronal death in huntington

NMDA-R binding and glutamate toxicity

132

MRI in huntingtons

caudate atrophy with exuacuo dilatation of frontal horns

133

mixed transcortical aphasia

nonfluent, poor comprehension, intact repitition

134

kluver bucy syndrome which apart and virus

amygdala, HSV1

135

frontal lobe syndrome

disorganized, disinhibited and apathetic

136

hemispatial neglect syndrome

non dominant parietal

137

dominant parietal

agraphia and acalculia

138

hippocampus lesion

anterograde amnesi

139

frontal eye field lesion

think frontal lobe look towards lesion
PPRF- opposite

140

severe hypertension- upper arm

upper leg weakness
watershed area

141

basilar art formed by

vertebral art

142

branches of MCA

lenticulostriate, ant choroidal

143

pontine arteries come from

basialr art

144

three branches of basilar art

pontine, sup cerebellar, AICA

145

cerebral flow Co2 and O2

Co2= 90, O2= 50

146

therapeutic hyperventillation for

cerebral edema and panic attacks
direct relations hip between Co2 and cerebral flow

147

CPP=

MAP- ICP, when o, no flow

148

internal capsule blood supply

lenticulostriate Art

149

ASA infarct

medial medullary synd

150

medial medullary synd 3 involved

lateral CS tract
medial leminiscus
hypoglossal n (tongue same side imp)

151

ACA infarct

lateral med syndrome (wallenberg)

152

specific feature of PICA infarct

hoarsness and dysphagia (horse- eating)

153

lateral pontine synd whicha rt and specific feature

AICA (paralysis of face and facial N)
decreased salivation and lacrimation

154

basialr art infarct

locked in syndrome

155

N involved in communicating art

anterior- optic
posterior- occulomotor

156

risk for berry aneurysm

ADPKD,ehler- danlos,black,age, HT,smoking

157

central post stroke pain syndrome

thalamus

158

epi and subdural shape and cause

appi- crescent
MMA and bridging veins

159

epidural hematoma and suture line

can't cross

160

shaken baby which hematoma

subdural

161

temporal bone fracture which hematoma

epidural

162

2 complications of SAH

spasm (doppler, nimodipine)
bleed (CT)

163

recurrent lobar hemorrhagic stroke

amyloid angiopathy (elderly)

164

ischemia hypoxia- which area

hippocampus

165

irreversible damage- stroke- time

5 min

166

red neurons- time frame

12- 48 hrs

167

most common site of hge

basal ganglia

168

TIA- MRI will be

negative

169

CSF is made in

ependymal cells of choroid plexus

170

pseudotumor cerebri which nerve

6 (papilledema+, imaging normal)

171

treatment for pseudotumor cerebri

weight loss, lumbar puncture
acetazolamide

172

2 types of non obstructive hydrocephalus

communicative and normal pressure

173

caus of communicating hydrocephalus

obliteration of subarachnoid villi

174

big venricles and wet wobbly and wacky

normal pre hydrocephalus

175

in Exvacuo, ICP is

normal

176

spinal nerve exit

corneal- above vertebrae
others- below vertebrrae

177

CSF space between

L2 and S2

178

legs are lateral in

lateral tracts (both corticospinaland spinothalamic)

179

F gracilis (part and location)

leg and medial

180

pain and temp can't wait

they synapse in gray matter and crosses right away in ant commisure

181

werdning hoffman synd

spinal muscualr atrophy like polio
tongue fascicualtion+

182

ALS UMN or LMN

both

183

caus of death in ALS

aspiration pneumonia

184

U disease (ALS)

defect in superoxide dismutase
Lon Gehrig disease
rilouzole
glutamate antagonist

185

artery of adam kiewics supply

ASA below T8 (thorax watershed)

186

tabes dorsalis finding

absent DTR and positive rhomberg

187

CSF in polio

Increased WBC

188

polio virus isolated from

throat or stool

189

frataxin

iron binding protein (mitochondria dysfunction in F ataxia)

190

2 non CNS findings in F ataxia

diabetes, HCM

191

horner syndrome Brown seq syndrome

lesion is above T1

192

T4, T7 and T10

nipple, xiphoid, umbilicus

193

L1 and L4

inguinal lig,knee

194

S2,S3,S4

erection and sensation of penile and anal zones

195

cremasteric reflex

L1,L2 (remember L1 area)

196

anal wink reflex

S3,S4 (remember anal area)

197

galant reflex

lower body move to stroked side

198

2 nerve on pons upper border

abducens and trigeminal (at MCP level)

199

factors of 12 except 1 and 2

midline nerves 3,4,6,12

200

multiple rooted nerve

12

201

spinal roots for what nerve

eleven (accessory)

202

parlaysis of conjugate vertical gaze

superior colliculi (parinaud syndrome pinealoma)

203

pinealoma

precocious puberty (germinoma), parinaud synd and hydrocephalus

204

nuclei of cranial nerve

mid- 3, 4
pons- 5,6,7,8
medulla- 9,10,12
spinal-11

205

cranial nerve nuclei medial nuclei

motor (basal plate) m form

206

cranial nerve lateral nuclei

sensory (alar plate)
sulcus limitans

207

CN 5 goes out in

SRO

208

superior orbital fissure contacts

V1 and other nerves
opthalmic veins and symp fibres

209

optic canal contents

CN 11, CRV, opthalmic art

210

internal auditory meatus

CN7, 8

211

jugular foramen syndrome

in malignancy
9,10,11,jugular vein

212

some say marry money but

my brother says big brain matters most

213

parotid gland supplied by

glossopharyngeal N (facial N other glands)

214

sphincter pupillae which receptor

muscarinic

215

X1 nerve

accesory (SCM,trapezius)

216

X11

hypoglossal (tongue except palatoglossus)

217

Name vagal nuclei

N solitarius (sensations) V11, IX,X
N ambigous(motor)- IX,X,XI ie, jugular foramen
Dorsal motor N- parasympathetic- X

218

corneal reflex

V1- nasociliary branch
V11- temporal branch- O. oculi

219

lacrimal reflex-

V 1 and V11

220

gag reflex

1X, X

221

to turn right which SCM

left

222

Jaw and tongue- same side

uvula- opposite side

223

componenets of GP nerve

motor- stylopharyngeus
sensory-inner surface of tympanic and carotid body and sinus
para- parotid gland

224

cavernous sinus syndrome- unexpected

V1,V2 involvement and horner syndrome

225

Lopex- wide

frequency- low

226

OVT of ear

oval window,scala vestibuli, scala tympani

227

weber in sensory and conduction

sensory- unaffected
conduction-affecte

228

noise induced what happens

damage to sternociliated cells in the organ of corti (little old age)

229

keratin debri middle ear

cholesteatoma

230

stapedius supply

facial (tensor tympani is V3)

231

lateral pterygoid

lowers the jaw

232

macula contains

cones 9no blood vessels)

233

a1,b and M3 of eye

M3- sphincter and ciliary muscle
a1- dilator
b- ciliary epithelium (makes humor)

234

during accomodation, lens becomes

more convex (old age problem)

235

secondary closed angle glaucoma

hypoxia leading to vasoproliferation in iris

236

drug CI in acute closure

epinephrine

237

parts of uvea

chorioid, iris

238

uveitis associated with

systemic inflammatory disorder

239

metamorphosia and scotoma seen in

age related macualr degeneration

240

wet is dirty

rapid loss of vision, rare, neovascularization

241

wet and dry translates to

proli and non proli in DM

242

splaying and paucity of retinal vessels

detachment

243

dot and flame shaped hge

hypertension (fibrinous necrosis)
A-Vnicking, copper silver wiring, cotton wool spots

244

why cherry red in CRA occlusion

macula supplied by choroid art

245

bone spicule shaped deposits around macula

retinits pigmentosa (rods affected 1st0

246

retinitis

edema and necrosis leading to scar

247

optic disc swelling and enalrged blind spot

papilledema

248

pupillary reflex (major things)

pre tectal- EW nucleus- ciliary ganglion

249

pupillary reflex- afferent does not involve

LGN

250

sympathetic nerve to eye

hypothalamus- ciliospinal center of budge- superior cervical ganglion- long ciliray nerve

251

marcus gunn pupil

afferent defect and swinging flash ligh
GUN

252

horner sydnrome ptosis

superior tarsal muscle

253

both obliques are tested when

adducted (opposite direction to teh name)

254

central motors

DM affect inner motor fibres since vessels are outside nerves

255

s. oblique damage

problem going downstairs

256

temporal mayor's lingual skills

mayor loop through temporal lobe loop in the sky lingual gyrus

257

pie on the floor when

DOR is broke

258

in INO, convergence is normal, which eye nystagmus

abducting eye

259

cortical and --- atrophy in alzhemiers

hippocampus

260

early onset alzhemiers risk

APP, presenilin 1 and presenelin 2

261

senile plaque and neurofibrillary tangles

amylod b and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau protein

262

pick bodies are seen in

frontotemporal dementia (silver staining spherical tan)

263

characteristic of pick disease

socially inappropriate behavior

264

halewyanations seen in

lewy body dementia (sensitive to neuroleptics)

265

rapid dementia with myoclonus

C J disease

266

pathology of C J disease

spongiform cortex (vacoules)
prPc- PrPsc

267

PrPsc is resistant to

b pleated sheets resistant to protease

268

vascualr dementia

stepwise decline and neuro deficit

269

HIV dementia

microglial nodules (lot of microglia)

270

cystic degeneration of putamen

wilsons disease

271

which enzyme is deficient in alzhemiers

choline acetyl transferase (CAT)

272

myelin increases everything except

time constant

273

triad of MS (SIN)

scanning speech, intention tremor, INO, incontinence, nystagmus

274

incontinence in MS

urge

275

MRI_MS

periventricular plaques

276

CSF- MS

oligoclonal bands (increased IgG)

277

treatment for MS

b- interferon
nalalizumab (a4 integrin)

278

albuminocytological dissociation

GB syndrome

279

which infection with GBS

campylobactor jejuni

280

MS can present with optic neuritis

decreased vision and pain around eye

281

multiple periventricualr inflammation and demyelination after infection

ADEM 9measles or VZV or vacciantion)

282

nerve disorder associated with scoliosis and foot deformities

charcot marie tooth (HMSN)

283

progressive multifocal encephalopathy- pathology and risk

destruction of oligodendrocytes
JC virus reaction in HIV and after rituximab and natalizumab

284

opposite of GBS

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

285

adrenoleukodystrophy organs involved and pathology

adrenal gland, testes, nervous system, decreased metabolism of VLCFA

286

area involved in partial seizures

medial temporal lobe

287

complex seizures means

impaired conscious ness

288

absence seizures vs atonic

absence - staring
atonic- drop to floor

289

no postictal confusion in

absence seizure

290

clonic means

movement
myoclonus- hicupps
myoclonic epilepsy

291

heat sensitivity- hot shower weakness

MS

292

male headache with lacrimation/rhinorrhea

cluster headache (O2 and sumatriptan)

293

Bil headache is

tension headache

294

migraine prophylaxis

propranolol, topiramate
triptain is abortive

295

brushing, eating leading to headache

trigeminal neuralgia (carbamazepine)

296

tinnitus, vertigo, S N deafness

meniers disease (increased endolymph)

297

positional testing in central vertigo

immediate nystagmus (central must be immediate)
periphearl is delayed horizontal nystagmus

298

von hippel landau

hemangioblastoma plus two
bil renal cell ca
pheochromocytoma

299

neurofibromin functions

negative regulator of RAS

300

pigmented iris hamartoma

lisch nodules (NF1)

301

2 MR in t sclerosis

mitral regurgitation
mental retardation

302

3 skin features in t sclerosis

ASA
angiofibroma
shagreen patches
ash leaf spots

303

3 tumors in t sclerosis

ARA
rhabdomyoma
angiomyolipoma of kidney
astrocytoma

304

tuberous sclerosis codes

ASA,ARA and MR

305

portwine stain and tram track calcification

sturge weber synd

306

sturge weber synd gene

activating mutation of GNAQ

307

sturge weber location

portwine stain
brain angioma- seizure
sclera- glaucoma

308

ataxia telengectasia 3rd feature

sinopulmonary infections (decreased IgA)

309

neural marker

synaptophysin

310

G multiforme is

grade IV astrocytoma

311

butterfly glioma is

G multiforme

312

microscopy - G multiforme

pseudopalisading

313

meningioma arises from

arachnoid cells (have tail)

314

meningioma micro

psammoma

315

S 100 +ve tumors

melanoma and schwanommaq

316

oligodendroglioma- egg conncetion

chicken wire capillary pattern
fried egg cells and calcification

317

childhood tumors code

PMEC
pilocytic (low grade) astrocytoma
medulloblastoma, epidymoma, craniopharyngioma

318

3 C of craniopharyngioma

calcification
cystic componanent
cholesterol crystals

319

most common childhood supratentorial tumor

craniopharyngioma

320

rosenthal fibres

pilocystic astrocytoma

321

sheets of small blue cells and brain tumor

medulloblastoma in child, drop metastasis
homer wright rosette
very malignant (hammer)

322

perivascualr rosette adn brain tumor

ependymoma

323

falx cerebri herniation is

cingulate gyrus (ACA) compression

324

2 types of trans tentorial

brain stem- duret haemorrhage
uncus- CN 111

325

3 components of uncal herniation

ipsilateal CN 111, ipsilateral PCA and contralateral crux cerebri (false localization sign)

326

glaucoma treatment ABCD

a agonists- vasoconstriction and decreased synthesis
b blockers- reduced synthesis
cholinomimetics- increased outflow (contraction of ciliary muscle)
diuretics- acetazolamide

327

MOA of latanoprost (PGF2a)

increased outflow (browning of iris)

328

brimonidine MOA

decreased synthesis a 2

329

opiod analgesics MOA

increased K+efflux and close ca+ channels

330

opiod- how to remember toxicity

respiratory depression (remember dextromethorphan)
miosis and constipation (remember no tolerance to these features)

331

heroid addicts treatment is

opiod (buprenorphine- partial agonist)

332

loperamide in children SE

toxic megacolon (for diarrhea)

333

butorphenol MOA

k agonist- Mu partial agonist
can cause competition with full agonist and withdrawal

334

tram it all with tramadol

opiod, 5HT, nor epinephrine

335

butorphanol indication and advantage

labor, migraine (less resp depression)

336

Na channel inactivation

PVC ToLa
pheytoin, valproate, carbamazepine,
topiramate and lamotrigine

337

GABA inducers (GABA-A)

2 groups adn 2 names
benzodiazepines, barbiturates
tiaGABine, viGABAtrin

338

GABA cheater is

GABApentin (actually inhibits ca channels)

339

ethosuximide MOA

block thalamic t type calcium channels

340

phenytoin SE

gingival hyperpalsia, pseudolymphoma

341

SJ syndrome- anti seizure

lamotrigine (must titrate)

342

seizure drug for bipolar

valproic acid (valparin), LFT neural tube defects

343

carbamazepine SE

agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia
liver toxicity and SIADH

344

barbiturates overdose treatment

supportive

345

ATOM is short acting

alprazolam,triazolam,oxazepam,midazolam (higher addiction)

346

bridge to SSRI

diazepam

347

zolpiderm MOA

BZ1 subtype of GABA receptor short duration because of liver metabolism
less addiction and less drowsiness

348

potency of inhaled anaesthetic

inversely proportional to MAC

349

less in blood and more in lipid

less in blood- fast
more in lipid- potent

350

N2O is fast but not potent (not soluble in both)

Halothane potent but not fast, halothane has high blood gas partition coefficent

351

inhaled anaesthetic decreases everything except

cerebral blood flow and ICP

352

malignant hyperthermia treatment

dantrolene

353

thiopental re distributes to

sk muscle and fat

354

common benzo anaesthetic

midazolam

355

PCP like anaesthetic MOA

ketamine (dissocciative anaesthesia, block NMDA receptor

356

propofol MOA

potentiate GABA (p for P)

357

local anaesthetic MOA and groups

block Na channels
amides will have 2 I in their name

358

importance of amides

enter as unchanged
given if allergic to esters

359

one factor favoring and another not favoring local anaesthesia

vasoconstriction- favors
infected tissue does not favor

360

order of neurons local

small and myelinated (size important)

361

local order of loss

PTTP

362

SE of LA

cardiovascular
benzocaine- methhemoglobinemia

363

2 types of NM blockers

depolarizing (succ choline)
non depolar (tubocurarine)

364

which channel inactivated in S choline

Na channels

365

phase 1and 11 of s choline

1- potentiated by choline estrase inhibitors
11- antidote is cholineesterase inhibitor

366

treatment for non depolarizing NM blockers

neostigmine with atropine

367

most imp concern of s choline

hyperkalemia (don't give in myopathies)

368

dantrolene MOA

prevent release of ca from SR

369

baclofen MOA and indication

potentiate GABA- b at spinal cord
muscle spasm secondary to CNS disease

370

cyclobenaprine MO and indication

TCA- like
centrally acting muscle relaxant

371

dopamine agonist

ergot- bromocriptine and pergolide
non ergot- pramipexole, ropinirole
pramipexole- preferred (pr for pr)

372

increased dopamine avaialbility

amantadine (ataxia, livido reticualris)

373

increase L dopa availability

carbidopa- decarboxylase
entracapone/tolcapone- COMT

374

decrease dopamine breakdown

selegiline- MAOB
tolcapone- COMT

375

SE of l dopa and pathology

on- off phenomenon
nigro striatal degeneration

376

memantine is like -- which like --

ketamine, PCP
memantine- NMDA antagonist for alzhemiers
dogarita for alzhemiers
donepezil, galabamine
rivastigmine, tacrine
Ache inhibitors

377

huntington disease treatment think dopamine

VMAT inhibitor- tetrabenazine, reserpine
D2 antagonist- haloperidol

378

sumatriptan MOA

5 HT 1B/1D agonist
vasoconstiction adn trigeminal inactivation

379

vasoactive peptide

relaxes vessels

380

microscopy red neurons

eosinophilic cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei, loss of nissl substance

381

juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

genetic
sleep deprivation risky

382

thalamic syndrome

c/c sensory loss

383

microatheroma and lipohyalinosis

lacuanr infarct

384

thalamus is supplied by

PCA

385

biphasic growth pattern

schwannomma

386

status drug

lorazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital

387

fish bones damage

internal laryngeal N

388

DRESS syndrome

drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms
after anticonvulsant, allopurinol and sulphonamides

389

capsaicin causes release of

substance P

390

fracture of orbital floor N and muscle

infra orbital (max N)
inferior rectus

391

familial retinoblastoma association

sarcoma (osteosarcoma)

392

red nucleus is seen in

midbrain

393

decerebrate rigidity

extensor posture (below or at red nucleus)

394

cortex inhibit

flexor response

395

all afferent are myelinated except

heat, slow pain, olfaction

396

all efferents are myelinated except

post ganglionic autonomic