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Flashcards in Derm path II Deck (51)
1

anucleate ghost cells

pilomatrixoma

2

hemangioma

red lump

3

xanthoma

yellow lump/bump

4

fibrohistiocytic lesion

tan

5

tan brown papule <1cm
sometimes tender

benign fibrous histiocytoma

6

dermatofibroma

same as benign fibrous histiocytoma

7

skin pigment where increased melanin in keratinocytes, no increase in # melanocytes

sun tan
freckles
cafe au lait spots
melasma

8

skin pigment wehre increased melanin in keratinocytes and small increase in # melanocytes

solat lentigo

9

loss of melanin in keratinoctes

vitiligo, acute transient
albinism

10

loss of melanocytes, permanent

vitiligo, chronic

11

what are types of acquired pigmentation

skin tattoo
amalgam tattoo

12

physiologic purpose suntan

increased protection against solar radiation (UV-B spectrum)

13

what is melasma

hypermelanosis

14

signs melasma

sharply demarcated blotchy brown macules on face
symmetrical distribution over cheeks and forehead
less frequently on upper lip and neck

15

what is chloasma

melasma on that face of someone who is pregnant

16

when does melasma occur

during pregnancy
in women taking oral contraceptive
at menopause

17

solar lentigo

benign discrete
hyperpigmented macule occurin in chronically sun exposed skin in adults (back of hand and forehead)

18

what causes solar lentigo

increased melanin pigment in keratinocytes
variable increase in number of junctional melanocytes

19

what does lentigo mean

proliferation of melanocytes

20

lentigo maligna

in situ melanoma in sun exposed skin of face

21

what is vitiligo

loss of melanin in keratinocytes

22

Tx for acute vitiligo

keratinolytic agents
removes layers of keratinocytes

23

what is albinism

defect in tyrosinase, enzyme necessary for melanin production

24

mutation in melanocytic nevi

acquired mutations in Ras signaling like NRAS and BRAF

25

what are junctional nevi

maculopapular visible appearance
small, flat and uniform

26

what are compound nevi

papular visible appearance
raised and dome shaped
nests and cords of dermal nevus cells

27

what are intradermal nevi

frequently nodular visible appearance
NO nests of melanocytes at dermal epidermal junction

28

large congenital nevus at risk for

melanoma risk

29

what do blue nevi look like

non nested ermal infiltration
assoc with fibrosis
highly dendritic and heavily pigmented

30

blue nevus can be confused with what

melanoma

31

what is a spitz nevus

spindle and epithelioid cell nevus
fascicular growth, large plump cells with pink-blue cytoplasms anf fusiform cells

32

spitz nevus confused with

hemangioma and melanomas

33

what is a halo nevus

lymphocytic infiltration surrounding nevus cells

34

what causes halo nevus

host immune response against nevus cells and surrounging normal melanocytes

35

nevus with cytologic atypida

dysplastic nevus

36

dysplastic nevus is a potential marker for

precursor melanoma

37

familial clark/dysplastic necus

autosomal dominant
CDKN2A and CDK4 mutations

38

appearance of dysplastic nevus

assymmetric
border irregular
color uneven
diameter >6mm

39

histo of dysplastic nevus

melanocytes as nests at tips of rete ridges
rete ridges are bridged
papillary dermis has increased fibrosis "fibroplasia"

40

subtypes of malignant melanoma

lentigo maligna
superficial spreading
nodular
acral lentiginous

41

what is lentigo maligna

in situ sun exposed area

42

superificial spreading malignant melanoma

in situ or invasive with mostly horizontal growth phase

43

nodular malignant melanoma

invasive mostly vertical growth phase

44

acral lentiginous

palms soles and subungual, non-caucasian, insitu or invasive

45

how do majority malignant melanomas originate

de novo, as isolated lesion
not usually next to melanocytic nevus

46

where does malignant melanoma mets to

lymph nodes, liver, lungs, brain

47

risk factors malignant melanoma

caucasians with fair skin
male gender
3 episodes of severe sunburn before age 20
prolonged MCB UV exposure with repeated sunburn

48

types of conditions of fair skin that increase risk of malignant malanoma 50-100 x

albinism or Xeroderma pigmentosa

49

mutation in majoirty of skin melanomas

increased telomerase activity from mutated TERT gene

50

Kit mutations

non sun exposed melanomas

51

mutations in dysplastic nevus and melanoma familial syndromes

CDKN2A mutations that inhibit P16 inhibition
CDK4 mutations block P16 inhbition