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Flashcards in MSK path V Deck (48)
1

osteopenia

decreased bone mass

2

osteoporosis

osteopenia that is severe and increase risk of fracture

3

type of neuropathy assoc with osteoporosis

radiculopathies from collapsing vertebrae

4

iatrogenic osteopenia

over Tx hyperthyroid

5

primary causes osteopenia

idiopathic
postmenopausal
senile

6

what contributes to senile and postmenopausal types of osteopenia

age related changes, reduced physcial activity, genetic factors, Ca nutritional state, hormonal influences

7

what increases in menopause

IL1 IL6 TNF
RANK and RANKL
osteoclast activity

8

what happens to bone mass from aging

decreased replication
decrease synthetic activity of osteoblasts
decreased activity of GF
reduced physical activity

9

why are the vertebral bodies susceptible in osteoporosis postmenopausal

have greatest SA
trabecular plates lose connections

10

explain bone changes in senile osteoporosis

Cx is thinned by subperiosteal and endosteal resorption
Haversian systems widened
can mimic cancellous bone

11

complications in fractures of long or big bones in osteoprosis can lead to what

PE and pneumonia

12

what is osteitis deformans

paget disease
icnreased disordered

13

phases of pagets

osteolytic
mixed
osteosclerotic

14

moasic pattern of lamellar bone
jigsaw puzzle like appearance from prominent cement lines

pagets

15

the mosaic pattern in pagets means what

in sclerotic phase

16

clinical sign pagets

usually asymptomatic
probably fracture

17

majority pagets is monostotic or poly

poly

18

what bones are most involved inpagets

axial skeleton and proximal femur

19

leontiasis ossea

enalrgement craniofacial skeleton from remodeling in pagets

20

what benign lesions develop in pagets

giant cell tumor, giant cell reparative granuloma, extra osseous masses of hematopoietic tissue

21

malignant development of pagets

sarcoma

22

lab finding in pagets

increased alkaline phosphatase
normal Ca and phosphorus

23

what will you feel over painful lesion if pagets

increased temperature because increase in blood flow to that area

24

bowing
thickeing of cortical and cancellous bone is called what and seen when

saber bone
seen in pagets

25

rickets and osteomalacia

Vit D deficiency in children and adults

26

what happens in Vit D deficiency

under-mineralization of bone

27

what is rachitic rosary baby

abrnomal mineral homeostasis
from rickets
"string of beads"

28

post common cause hyperPTH

PTH adenoma

29

what happens to bone in hyperPTH

increase osteoclast activation increase bone resoprtion and Ca mobilization
PTH mediates effect because increases RANKL expression

30

mineral effects of hyper PTH

increased resorption of Ca by renal tubules
increased urinary excretion of phosphates
increased synthesis of active Vit D 1,25 OH by kidneys

31

increased active vit D will do what

increase Ca absorption in gut and mobilize bone Ca buy inducing RANKL

32

what will occur in hyperPTH if ostoclasts proliferate

dissecting osteitis, looks like train tracks

33

what is a brown tumor

benign
from a fracture( can be caused by dissecting osteitis)
blood turns into hemosiderin which gives brown appearance

34

renal osteodystrophy

skeletal changes that occur in chronic renal disease(assoc with dialysis)
metabolic acidosis will cause bones to soften
osteopenia, osteomalacia, hyper PTH and growth retardation

35

hyperPTH can lead to

osteoprosis, brown tumors osteitis fibrosa cystica

36

simple fracture

overlying skin intact

37

compound fracture

bone communicates with skin surface

38

comminuted fracture

bone is fragmented

39

displaced fracture

ends of bone at fractures site are not aligned

40

stress fracture

slowly developing fracture that follows a period of increased physical acitivity in which bone is subjected to repetitive loads

41

green stick fracture

extending only partially through bone, seen in infants because bone is still soft

42

pathologic fracture

involving bone weakened by underlying disease process, such as tumor

43

conditions assoc with osteonecrosis

alcohol
bisphosphonate use
corticosteroid administration
CT disorders
gaucher disease
infection
pregnancy
radiation therapy
sickle cell crisis
trauma
tumors

44

what artery gets compromised in avascular necrosis of femoral head

branch of obturator that supplies superior part of femoral head

45

what bone is not affected by medullary infarcts

cortex because collateral flow

46

subchondral infarct morphology

wedge shaped segment of tissue undergoes necrosis
overlying cartilage remains viable because nutrients from synovial fluid

47

what occurs in necrotic area of bone

saponification

48

osteomyeltisis

inflammation of bone and marrow
almost always secondary to infection