Diseases of The Nervous System (unit 12) Flashcards Preview

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1

Cavities in the brain with cells that produce cerebral spinal fluid (CSF).

Ventricles

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Starts from two lateral ventricles through interventricular foramina into:
- 3rd ventricle- through cerebral aqueduct into
- 4th ventricle- Through lateral and medial apertures into
- Subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal cord.

CSF circulation

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After starting at the two lateral ventricles through the interventricular foramina, the CSF goes here.

The third ventricle

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From the third ventricle, the CSF goes through the cerebral aqueduct into the:

The 4th ventricle

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From the 4th ventricle, the CSF goes through the lateral and medial apertures into:

The subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal cord

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Injury to the brain.

- Concussion
- Contusion
- Laceration
- Intracranial (brain) hemorrhage

Brain trauma

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Loss of cerebral control following injury (fracture, laceration, cutting, wound, hemorrhage)

- Immediate and temporary disturbance of brain function, disruption of normal electrical activity.

Concussion

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- Blood leaking from the brain
- Injection of spinal fluid into the brain => molecular (chemical) disturbance

Results of concussions

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- Drowsiness, loss of coordination, slow pulse, convulsions, projectile vomiting, stupor, comatose.

Symptoms of concussions

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A bruise- crushing (compression) of the brain.

- Leads of hemorrhage
- Often accompanied by swelling
- Caused by fracture or trauma to the skull

Contusion

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A cutting wound that penetrates the skull.

- Results in hemorrhage, bleeding.

Laceration

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- Extradural (epidural) hemorrhage
- Subdural hemorrhage
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Types of Intracranial (brain) Hemorrhage

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Intracranial hemorrhage due to a fracture or trauma to the head.

- Bleeding => blood collects and proceeds down to the brain

- If unrelieved => death can occur in days or weeks.

Extradural (epidural) Hemorrhage

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Intracranial hemorrhage caused my a more severe fracture or injury.
- More rapid bleeding
- If unrelieved => death within a few days.

Subdural Hemorrhage

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Most severe intracranial hemorrhage, due to a laceration.
- Very rapid bleeding into the brain
- Death occurs within hours

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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Inflammation of the membranes (meninges) of the brain and spinal cord.

- May affect any age group: newborn => elderly

Meningitis

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-Microorganisms that spread into blood and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) into meninges => muscle paralysis => respiratory failure (diaphragm) within 12-24 hours.

- Viruses (most cases), fungi, protozoans, and cancers

Causes of meningitis

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A life threatening meningitis that may cause epidemic meningitis.
- Spread by respiratory secretions

Bacterial Meningitis (Neisseria meningitides)

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A type of meningitis that is common in people with impaired immune system (AIDS).

Fungal Meningitis

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- Headaches
- Stiff neck*
- Fever
- Photophobia
- Vomiting

Symptoms of meningitis

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Temporary lack of circulation to a part of the brain; may lead to ischemia.

- Mini-stroke (lasting minutes- hours).
- Warning sign for a stroke

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

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- Clot
- Narrowing (atherosclerosis)
- Blockage in carotid artery

Causes of Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

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- Loss of sensation
- Loss of movement
- Loss of speech
- Loss of mental function or vision

* Generally disappear completely within 24 hours (after resumption of blood flow).

Symptoms of Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

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Sudden death of some brain cells due to lack of oxygen caused by blockage or rupture of an artery in the brain => hemorrhage => softening of the brain => ischemia and infarction.

- Effect depends on the size of the hemorrhage
- 3rd leading cause of death

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)

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- Arteriosclerosis
- High blood pressure
- Thrombus or embolus in cerebral blood vessel
- Aneurysm

Predisposing factors of cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

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- Most common is weakness or paralysis of one side of the body with partial or complete loss of voluntary movement or sensation in a leg or arm.

Symptom of cerebral vascular accident (CVA)

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Inflammation of the brain

Encephalitis

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- Bacteria (staph, strep)
- Viruses (Herpes, encephalitis virus)
- Complication of measles or chickenpox.

- Infections usually spread from upper respiratory tract, sinuses, ears, or eyes.

Cause of encephalitis

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Horse => mosquito => human
- West nile virus

Equine encephalitis

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- Swelling of the brain
- Fever, headache, body aches, skin rash and swollen lymph nodes
- Severe infections - high fever, stiff neck, stupor (sleepiness), disorientation, coma, tremors, occasional convulsions, paralysis, and rarely death

- Death rates 3% to 15% (higher in elderly than in younger)

Symptoms of encephalitis