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pathology > Cellular Reaction to Injury > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cellular Reaction to Injury Deck (69)
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1

oxygen deprivation (hypoxia), nutritional deficiencies, chemical agents (prescription drugs, air pollutants, alcohol, asbestos, pesticides), autoimmune diseases and infections, genetic defects, aging process (cellular senescence).

Etiology of Cellular Changes

2

Cellular Swelling
Degeneration
Infiltration
Necrosis
Atrophy
Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Regeneration
Somatic Death

Cellular Changes

3

Passive (worsen) cell alteration that may result in:
cellular swelling
degeneration
infiltration

Regressive Cellular Changes

4

Increase in cell water content due to cell injury that allows intracellular sodium to rise.
- Entire organ or tissue experiences loss of color, cells that become distended.

Cellular Swelling

5

Loss of color.

Pallor

6

Cells become distended.

Turgor

7

The deterioration of tissues with corresponding functional impairment as a result of disease resulting in appearance of substances within the cell that are not normally present.

Degeneration (intracellular)

8

Deposit of abnormal amounts of fat in cells; e.g. , heart, liver, kidneys.

This is due to malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, obesity, or starvation.

Fatty Degeneration

9

Deposit of amyloid (starch like protein) giving tissues waxy, translucent, hyaline appearance.
e.g., liver, kidneys, adrenal glands

This is due to diabetes mellitus, poisons, often secondary to chronic rheumatoid arthritis, carcinoma, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, Hodgkin's disease.

Amyloid Degeneration

10

Jelly-like appearance of tissues.

E.g., lungs- anthracosis: lung dust disease due to inhalation of coal pigment.

Colloid degeneration

11

The process of seepage or diffusion into tissue of substances that are not ordinarily present; abnormal passing and deposit of substances in tissue.

Infiltration (intercellular)

12

Deposit of fat in tissues often due to poisons or diet, occurs mostly in the liver, kidneys, and heart.

Fatty Infiltration

13

Coloration caused by deposit, or lack, or colored material in the tissues (increase or decrease in pigment deposit).

Pigmentation infiltration

14

Pigment transmitted from outside the body.

Exogenous

15

Carotene in blood; resulting in discoloration of the liver and skin.

Carotenemia

16

Due to lead poisoning > discoloration to gums, damage to the brain and other internal organs.

Plumbism

17

Pigment present inside the body

changes in the retina of the eye
melanosis
albinism
jaundice (icterus= bile pigments)

Endogenous

18

Moles, melanomas, freckles

Melanosis

19

Calcium deposits (lime salts) in tissue, usually surrounded by bacteria, necrotic cells, mucous, foreign materials.

Calcification

20

Kidney stones

Renaliths (renal calculi)

21

Bladder stones

Vesical Calculi

22

Calcification in the intestines or appendix

Fecaliths

23

Calcification in the nose

Rhinoliths

24

Gallstones

Choleliths

25

Calcification in the lungs

Pneumoliths

26

Calcium deposits in the arteries

Arteriosclerosis

27

Stone baby, calcified fetus, usually in fallopian tubes.

Lithopedion

28

Primary chronic metabolic disorder (a common form of arthritis) associated with elevated blood uric acid level.

results in accumulation of uric acid and uric acid salts in joints (often the big toe), kidneys, external ear and eyelids.
Causes swelling, arthritic pain and deformed joints.

Gout

29

Cell degeneration that can lead to cell and tissue death without replacement.

Cellular Death

30

Mechanical injury, malnutrition, heat or cold, loss of nerve supply, low oxygen (hypoxia), or no oxygen (anoxia) delivered to tissues, drugs or bacterial toxins, or viruses.

Causes of cellular death