Flashcards in Cellular Reaction to Injury Deck (69)
oxygen deprivation (hypoxia), nutritional deficiencies, chemical agents (prescription drugs, air pollutants, alcohol, asbestos, pesticides), autoimmune diseases and infections, genetic defects, aging process (cellular senescence).
Etiology of Cellular Changes
Passive (worsen) cell alteration that may result in:
Regressive Cellular Changes
Increase in cell water content due to cell injury that allows intracellular sodium to rise.
- Entire organ or tissue experiences loss of color, cells that become distended.
Loss of color.
Cells become distended.
The deterioration of tissues with corresponding functional impairment as a result of disease resulting in appearance of substances within the cell that are not normally present.
Deposit of abnormal amounts of fat in cells; e.g. , heart, liver, kidneys.
This is due to malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, obesity, or starvation.
Deposit of amyloid (starch like protein) giving tissues waxy, translucent, hyaline appearance.
e.g., liver, kidneys, adrenal glands
This is due to diabetes mellitus, poisons, often secondary to chronic rheumatoid arthritis, carcinoma, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, Hodgkin's disease.
Jelly-like appearance of tissues.
E.g., lungs- anthracosis: lung dust disease due to inhalation of coal pigment.
The process of seepage or diffusion into tissue of substances that are not ordinarily present; abnormal passing and deposit of substances in tissue.
Deposit of fat in tissues often due to poisons or diet, occurs mostly in the liver, kidneys, and heart.
Coloration caused by deposit, or lack, or colored material in the tissues (increase or decrease in pigment deposit).
Pigment transmitted from outside the body.
Carotene in blood; resulting in discoloration of the liver and skin.
Due to lead poisoning > discoloration to gums, damage to the brain and other internal organs.
Pigment present inside the body
changes in the retina of the eye
jaundice (icterus= bile pigments)
Moles, melanomas, freckles
Calcium deposits (lime salts) in tissue, usually surrounded by bacteria, necrotic cells, mucous, foreign materials.
Renaliths (renal calculi)
Calcification in the intestines or appendix
Calcification in the nose
Calcification in the lungs
Calcium deposits in the arteries
Stone baby, calcified fetus, usually in fallopian tubes.
Primary chronic metabolic disorder (a common form of arthritis) associated with elevated blood uric acid level.
results in accumulation of uric acid and uric acid salts in joints (often the big toe), kidneys, external ear and eyelids.
Causes swelling, arthritic pain and deformed joints.
Cell degeneration that can lead to cell and tissue death without replacement.