Flashcards in Diseases of the Digestive System (Unit 10) Deck (121)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth.
- Vincent's Angina
- Aphthous stomatitis (Canker sores)
Types of stomatitis
Inflammation of the gums
- Results in redness, swelling, tendency to bleed.
- Mouth or upper respiratory infections (strep)
- Improper dental hygiene, plaque, loose fitting dentures, tooth decay.
Etiology of Gingivitis
Painful bacterial infection (Leptospira) and ulceration of the gums.
- Swelling and sloughing off of dead tissue from mouth and throat -> bleeding -> foul breath
- Usually in children or young adults
Vincent's Angina (trench mouth)
Inflammation of the tongue.
- Results in: tender, painful tongue covered with ulcers, edema.
- Candida yeast -> thrush (sore) mouth and tongue.
- Herpes viruses, syphilis, hot food or liquids (most common), mechanical injury, such as biting the tongue.
Etiology of Glossitis
Inflammation of the parotid glands (salivary glands) due to viral (mumps) or bacterial infection.
Parotitis (Epidemic parotitis)
Tiny ulcers (fluid filled vesicles) with red areola on mucosa of the mouth.
- Etiology is unknown
Aphthous stomatitis (canker sores)
- Hard tooth brush
- Sharp foods (coffee, nuts)
- Iron or vitamin deficiency (folic acid, B12)
- Stomach acid reflux
- Viruses, bacteria, stress
Mechanical causes of aphthous stomatitis (canker sores) is unknown
-Occur on lips, cheeks, gum, palate, or tongue.
- Related to exposure to sunlight, chewing tobacco, smoking pipes or cigars.
- Result in inflammation, ulceration, pain.
Neoplasms of the mouth
Located on the lips and tongue.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Located on the lips.
Basal cell carcinoma
Can metastasize to the GI
Both squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas
Located on the bones of the jaw.
Giant cell Tumor (epulus)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane and underlying parts of the pharynx.
- Streptococcus or other bacteria (e.g., diphtheria, bacteria- difficult breathing and swallowing)
- Food blockage in the throat
- Allergens, pollen, dust
Etiology of pharyngitis
- Cough, congestion, catarrhal lesions, crypts of pus -> giving tonsils white appearance -> airway obstruction.
Symptoms of pharyngitis
Inflamed mucous membrane.
Crypts of pus.
Highly contagious infection; spread by sneezing, coughing.
- Sore throat
- Bumpy rash on the skin
- Flushed cheeks
- "Strawberry tongue"
Symptoms of scarlet fever
- Rheumatic fever (heart disease)
- Glomerulonephritis (kidney disease)
Serious complications of scarlet fever
Inflammation of the esophagus, is rare.
- May lead to:
- Chronic esophagitis
- Barret's esophagus
Tube connecting the mouth and the stomach.
- Acid reflux, hot foods and liquids, chemical poisons, acids, alcohol, foreign bodies, food stuck in the throat, neoplasm.
- External pressure such as with hiatal hernia.
Causes of esophagitis
Scar tissue forms -> blockage (esophageal stricture = stenosis)
Tissue in the esophagus is replaced by tissue similar to intestinal lining. Most often a result of long-term gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
- Associated with greater risk of developing esophageal cancer.
May spread from mouth, throat, or stomach cancer.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma