Diseases of the Digestive System (Unit 10) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diseases of the Digestive System (Unit 10) Deck (121)
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Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth.

Stomatitis

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- Gingivitis
- Vincent's Angina
- Glossitis
- Parotitis
- Aphthous stomatitis (Canker sores)

Types of stomatitis

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Inflammation of the gums
- Results in redness, swelling, tendency to bleed.

Gingivitis

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- Mouth or upper respiratory infections (strep)
- Improper dental hygiene, plaque, loose fitting dentures, tooth decay.

Etiology of Gingivitis

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Painful bacterial infection (Leptospira) and ulceration of the gums.

- Swelling and sloughing off of dead tissue from mouth and throat -> bleeding -> foul breath
- Usually in children or young adults

Vincent's Angina (trench mouth)

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Inflammation of the tongue.

- Results in: tender, painful tongue covered with ulcers, edema.

Glossitis

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- Candida yeast -> thrush (sore) mouth and tongue.

- Herpes viruses, syphilis, hot food or liquids (most common), mechanical injury, such as biting the tongue.

Etiology of Glossitis

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Inflammation of the parotid glands (salivary glands) due to viral (mumps) or bacterial infection.

Parotitis (Epidemic parotitis)

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Tiny ulcers (fluid filled vesicles) with red areola on mucosa of the mouth.
- Etiology is unknown

Aphthous stomatitis (canker sores)

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- Hard tooth brush
- Sharp foods (coffee, nuts)
- Iron or vitamin deficiency (folic acid, B12)
- Stomach acid reflux
- Viruses, bacteria, stress

Mechanical causes of aphthous stomatitis (canker sores) is unknown

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-Occur on lips, cheeks, gum, palate, or tongue.
- Related to exposure to sunlight, chewing tobacco, smoking pipes or cigars.
- Result in inflammation, ulceration, pain.

Neoplasms of the mouth

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Located on the lips and tongue.

Squamous cell carcinoma

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Located on the lips.

Basal cell carcinoma

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Can metastasize to the GI

Both squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas

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Located on the bones of the jaw.

Giant cell Tumor (epulus)

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Inflammation of the mucous membrane and underlying parts of the pharynx.

Pharyngitis

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- Streptococcus or other bacteria (e.g., diphtheria, bacteria- difficult breathing and swallowing)
- Viruses
- Food blockage in the throat
- Allergens, pollen, dust

Etiology of pharyngitis

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- Cough, congestion, catarrhal lesions, crypts of pus -> giving tonsils white appearance -> airway obstruction.

Symptoms of pharyngitis

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Inflamed mucous membrane.

Catarrhal lesions

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Crypts of pus.

Retropharyngeal abscess

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Highly contagious infection; spread by sneezing, coughing.

Scarlet fever

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-Fever
- Lethargy
- Sore throat
- Bumpy rash on the skin
- Flushed cheeks
- "Strawberry tongue"

Symptoms of scarlet fever

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- Rheumatic fever (heart disease)
- Glomerulonephritis (kidney disease)

Serious complications of scarlet fever

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Inflammation of the esophagus, is rare.

- May lead to:
- Chronic esophagitis
- Barret's esophagus

Esophagitis

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Tube connecting the mouth and the stomach.

Esophagus

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- Acid reflux, hot foods and liquids, chemical poisons, acids, alcohol, foreign bodies, food stuck in the throat, neoplasm.
- External pressure such as with hiatal hernia.

Causes of esophagitis

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Scar tissue forms -> blockage (esophageal stricture = stenosis)

Chronic Esophagitis

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Tissue in the esophagus is replaced by tissue similar to intestinal lining. Most often a result of long-term gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
- Associated with greater risk of developing esophageal cancer.

Barrett's Esophagus

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May spread from mouth, throat, or stomach cancer.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

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Inflammation of the stomach.

Gastritis