Diseases of the Digestive System (Unit 10) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diseases of the Digestive System (Unit 10) Deck (121):
1

Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth.

Stomatitis

2

- Gingivitis
- Vincent's Angina
- Glossitis
- Parotitis
- Aphthous stomatitis (Canker sores)

Types of stomatitis

3

Inflammation of the gums
- Results in redness, swelling, tendency to bleed.

Gingivitis

4

- Mouth or upper respiratory infections (strep)
- Improper dental hygiene, plaque, loose fitting dentures, tooth decay.

Etiology of Gingivitis

5

Painful bacterial infection (Leptospira) and ulceration of the gums.

- Swelling and sloughing off of dead tissue from mouth and throat -> bleeding -> foul breath
- Usually in children or young adults

Vincent's Angina (trench mouth)

6

Inflammation of the tongue.

- Results in: tender, painful tongue covered with ulcers, edema.

Glossitis

7

- Candida yeast -> thrush (sore) mouth and tongue.

- Herpes viruses, syphilis, hot food or liquids (most common), mechanical injury, such as biting the tongue.

Etiology of Glossitis

8

Inflammation of the parotid glands (salivary glands) due to viral (mumps) or bacterial infection.

Parotitis (Epidemic parotitis)

9

Tiny ulcers (fluid filled vesicles) with red areola on mucosa of the mouth.
- Etiology is unknown

Aphthous stomatitis (canker sores)

10

- Hard tooth brush
- Sharp foods (coffee, nuts)
- Iron or vitamin deficiency (folic acid, B12)
- Stomach acid reflux
- Viruses, bacteria, stress

Mechanical causes of aphthous stomatitis (canker sores) is unknown

11

-Occur on lips, cheeks, gum, palate, or tongue.
- Related to exposure to sunlight, chewing tobacco, smoking pipes or cigars.
- Result in inflammation, ulceration, pain.

Neoplasms of the mouth

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Located on the lips and tongue.

Squamous cell carcinoma

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Located on the lips.

Basal cell carcinoma

14

Can metastasize to the GI

Both squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas

15

Located on the bones of the jaw.

Giant cell Tumor (epulus)

16

Inflammation of the mucous membrane and underlying parts of the pharynx.

Pharyngitis

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- Streptococcus or other bacteria (e.g., diphtheria, bacteria- difficult breathing and swallowing)
- Viruses
- Food blockage in the throat
- Allergens, pollen, dust

Etiology of pharyngitis

18

- Cough, congestion, catarrhal lesions, crypts of pus -> giving tonsils white appearance -> airway obstruction.

Symptoms of pharyngitis

19

Inflamed mucous membrane.

Catarrhal lesions

20

Crypts of pus.

Retropharyngeal abscess

21

Highly contagious infection; spread by sneezing, coughing.

Scarlet fever

22

-Fever
- Lethargy
- Sore throat
- Bumpy rash on the skin
- Flushed cheeks
- "Strawberry tongue"

Symptoms of scarlet fever

23

- Rheumatic fever (heart disease)
- Glomerulonephritis (kidney disease)

Serious complications of scarlet fever

24

Inflammation of the esophagus, is rare.

- May lead to:
- Chronic esophagitis
- Barret's esophagus

Esophagitis

25

Tube connecting the mouth and the stomach.

Esophagus

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- Acid reflux, hot foods and liquids, chemical poisons, acids, alcohol, foreign bodies, food stuck in the throat, neoplasm.
- External pressure such as with hiatal hernia.

Causes of esophagitis

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Scar tissue forms -> blockage (esophageal stricture = stenosis)

Chronic Esophagitis

28

Tissue in the esophagus is replaced by tissue similar to intestinal lining. Most often a result of long-term gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
- Associated with greater risk of developing esophageal cancer.

Barrett's Esophagus

29

May spread from mouth, throat, or stomach cancer.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

30

Inflammation of the stomach.

Gastritis

31

- Hot and spicy foods, fatty foods, high protein foods, garlic, alcohol- irritant, chemical poisons.
- Infections: quite rare because of acid in the stomach.
- Helicobacter pylori - bacteria that can survive (block acid production).

Cause of gastritis

32

An open sore or lesion of mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic tissue.

Ulcer

33

A lesion in the lining of the digestive system.

- Esophageal ulcer
- Gastric ulcers (usually single ulcer)
- Duodenal ulcers (Small intestine, small and multiple ulcers)

Peptic ulcer

34

- Presence of Helicobacter pylori or virus
- Excess acid production or alcohol
- Diet such as greasy foods
- Medications or stress

Triggers of ulcers

35

Pain, nausea, vomiting, hematemesis (blood in vomit), blood in feces (Melena), heartburn, fatigue, belching.

Symptoms of ulcers

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- Formation of scar tissue
- Perforation
- Tearing of stomach lining

Complications of ulcers

37

Abnormal constriction of the pyloric valve.

- In children, more in males, 1st born males.
- Symptoms: mostly vomiting during the first four weeks of life.
- Congenital

Pyloric valve stenosis

38

Stomach cancer.

- Can be squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma

- Symptoms: vomiting blood, weight loss
- Surgical removal, chemotherapy, radiation

Gastric cancer

39

- Hereditary
- Dietary- smoked foods, red meats, salted fish, food additives
- Alcohol, coal tars from cigarettes

Risk factors for gastric cancer

40

Inflammation of the intestine, especially the small intestine, usually accompanied by diarrhea.

Enteritis

41

- Salmonella- most common
- Shigella, Hepatitis A, E. coli, dysentery, last stages of TB, cholera
- Spicy foods, alcohol, medication

Etiology of enteritis

42

Diarrhea, dehydration

Symptoms of enteritis

43

Bacterial infection by Salmonella.

- Invade the lining of the small intestine -> acute symptoms- gastroenteritis (nausea, abdominal cramping, and bloody diarrhea with mucous).
- Symptoms after 6-72 hours after ingestion, lasts 5-7 days.

- Requires no treatment, unless patient becomes severely dehydrated or infection spreads from the intestines.
- Fatality rate >1% for most strains of salmonella.

Salmonellosis

44

Abnormal protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through an abnormal opening in the wall of the cavity containing the organ.

Hernia

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- Obesity, age, trauma
- Congenital weakness in the wall
- Poorly healed wound or surgical incisions

Predisposing factors of hernias

46

- Reducible - can be pushed back without surgery.

- Irreducible- Can't be pushed back without surgery because of scar tissue and adhesions.

Types of hernia

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- Umbilical
- Inguinal
- Femoral
- Hiatal
- Diaphragmatic

Locations of hernias

48

Congenital, most common.

Umbilical hernia

49

Male scrotum or female vagina.

Inguinal hernia

50

Inside of the thigh.

Femoral hernia

51

Herniation of the esophagus.

Hiatal hernia

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Upwards into diaphragm.

Diaphragmatic hernia

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- Rupture or perforation
- Strangulation - Blood vessels of wall of herniated intestines twist into knots -> gangrene can occur
- Obstruction or blockage

Complications of hernias

54

Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon (part of the large intestine).

Colitis

55

- Ascending infections (parasites, worms)
- Descending infections (Shigella)
- Nervous tension

Etiology of colitis

56

- Ulcerative colitis
- Chrohn's disease

Complications of colitis

57

Erosion in lining of the rectum and lower part of the colon (may include the ileum).

- Idiopathic, probably the body's immune system reaction to virus or bacterium.
- Results in bleeding, perforation, increased risk for cancer.
- 25-40% of patients have colostomy

Ulcerative colitis (inflammatory bowel disease)

58

Removal of the colon and rectum.

Colostomy

59

Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract anywhere from the esophagus to the anus ( including parts of the small and large intestine).

- Autoimmune disease, may be hereditary
- Triggered by stress and diet
- Affects full thickness of the wall
- Can result in ulcers, scarring, blockage of the intestine, rectal bleeding
- Mostly in young adults (20-35), often females.

Crohn's Disease

60

The presence of a number of small bulging scars (diverticula) pushing outward from the colon wall.

Diverticulosis

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Small bulging scars.

Diverticula

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Inflammation of diverticula in the colon; may include infection.

Diverticulitis

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Inflammation of the rectum.

- Complications include bleeding, exudates, abscess, rectal sinus, fistula.

Proctitis

64

- Ascending infections
- Retained feces
- Hemorrhoids
- Colon rectal cancer
- Irritating injections
- Mechanical injury to rectum.

Etiology of proctitis

65

Painful, inflamed veins (varicose vein) around the anus or lower rectum.

- Symptoms include bleeding, irritation, swelling

Hemorrhoids

66

- Increased pressure in the veins due to constipation or diarrhea, obesity, pregnancy, anal intercourse, prolonged sitting.

Etiology of hemorrhoids

67

Bacterial infection by Shigella in polluted water ( human feces) transmitted via fecal- oral route and is very common in individuals with AIDS.

- Severe dysentery treated (e.g. ampicillin)
- 10- 15% fatality rate (by some strains of Shigella)

Shigellosis

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- Mild abdominal discomfort or full- blown dysentery (cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, blood, pus, or mucus in stools).
- Begin 2-4 days after ingestion and last for several days to several weeks

Symptoms of Shigellosis

69

A rare but serious illness caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria.
- Produce toxin- even tiny amounts lead to severe poisoning:
- abdominal cramps, difficulty breathing, no fever
- found in soil and untreated water.
- May enter through wounds, or the digestive system (from spores- can live in improperly canned or preserved food).

Botulism

70

Malignant neoplasm; metastasizes early.

- Degree of tumor invasion and spread from mucosa -> muscular wall -> lymph nodes -> distant metastasis

- Causes bleeding
- More often in males

Rectal cancer

71

Vestigial (no function) diverticulum (pouch) located at the ileocecal junction

- Lower portion of the ascending colon -> high risk of fecal impaction (blockage of appendix by feces)

Appendix

72

Appendix is infected by bacteria in the feces.

- Acute in younger people, chronic in older due to scar tissue and adhesions.

- Danger: perforation and spread of infection throughout the abdomen -> peritonitis

Appendicitis

73

Inflammation of the membrane lining in the abdominal cavity (peritoneum).

Peritonitis

74

- Infection or trauma to abdomen
- Rupture of an internal organ or vessel:
- Appendix
- Gall Bladder
- Portion of intestines
- Fallopian tubes
- Diabetes (dehydration due to excessive fluid loss).

Causes of peritonitis

75

Inflammation of the liver

Hepatitis

76

Viruses (Hep A, B, C), bacteria, gallstones, trauma, injury, chemicals, alcohols, medications.

Causes of hepatitis

77

- Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)
- Jaundice
- Fatigue, nausea, vomiting

Symptoms of hepatitis

78

Conditions characterized by excessive concentration of bilirubin in the skin and tissues and deposition of excessive bile pigment in the skin, cornea, body fluids, and mucous membranes with the resulting yellow appearance of the patient.

- Caused by excessive bilirubin, defective liver or biliary obstruction.

Jaundice (Icterus)

79

Yellow pigment produced from hemoglobin of old RBC.

Bilirubin

80

Liver infection -> hepatic cell destruction -> necrosis -> autolysis

Viral hepatitis

81

Mild, spread by contaminated food or water; does not cause chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis.

Hepatitis A

82

Spread through blood transfusion, saliva, semen, shared needles; increased risk of cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Hepatitis B

83

Spread through blood transfusion, shared needles; cause chronic hepatitis.

Hepatitis C

84

A degeneration or atrophy of the parenchyma cells of an organ with hypertrophy of the interstitial connective tissue.
- End stage of chronic liver disease

Cirrhosis

85

1. Portal cirrhosis
2. Biliary (focal) cirrhosis

Two main types of Cirrhosis

86

Liver cell necrosis

- Liver tissue dies over time -> scar tissue forms -> body jaundice

- Liver enlargement (hepatomegaly)
- Liver retains fats, creamy yellow color
- Due to alcoholism or other chemical poisons.

Portal cirrhosis

87

Usually due to damage to bile ducts in liver -> body jaundice.

- Liver turns green, smaller than normal.

Biliary (focal) cirrhosis

88

- Ascites (abdominal edema)
- Mental dysfunction
- Jaundice
- Blood clotting disorders

- A major cause of Hepatocellular carcinoma.

Complications of cirrhosis

89

- Heptocellular carcinoma
- Cholangiocarcinoma
- Metastatic carcinoma

Tumors of the liver

90

Begins in hepatocytes

Hepatocellular carcinoma

91

Starts in bile ducts of the liver.

Cholangiocarcinoma

92

Most common; doesn't originate in the liver, but spreads from primary malignancy in colon, lung or breast.

Metastatic carcinoma

93

Enzyme for catabolism of phenylalanine is missing.

- Phenylalanine accumulates in blood and urine
- Affects development of nervous system -> brain damage.

PKU ( phenylketonuria)

94

Liver defect receptors in liver don't hold low- density lipoprotein (LDL) -> results in high level of cholesterol => atherosclerosis.

Familial hypercholesterolemia

95

Inflammation of the gall bladder ( a sac under the liver that stores bile).

- Caused by:
- Gall stones (choleliths) 90%, retained bile surrounded by calcium
- Gall bladder cancer, hepatitis, infections (E. coli, strep), alcohol abuse.

Cholecystitis

96

Presence of one or more calculi (gallstones) in gallbladder.

- In developed countries, 10% of adults have gallstones.
- Tend to be asymptomatic

- Serious complications include cholecystitis or biliary tract obstruction.

Cholelithiasis

97

Inflammation of the bile ducts; applies to inflammation of any part of the bile ducts, which carry bile from the liver to the gall bladder and intestine.

- Caused by infections from liver or gall bladder or gall stones, pushed into duct.
- Symptoms: jaundice, back pain, chest pain, clay colored faces.

Cholangitis

98

Inflammation of the pancreas

- Caused by diabetes, pancreatic cancer, infection, trauma, injury to the abdomen.

Pancreatitis

99

Produces hormones (insulin and glucagon) and digestive enzymes (released into small intestine).

The pancreas

100

A term used to designate two diseases, diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus, each having the symptom of polyuria in common.

- Can be hereditary or acquired.
- Defective Beta cells in pancreas don't produce insulin => decreased insulin in blood (insulin send sugar = glucose into body cells) => excess sugar in blood => excess blood sugar to kidneys => excess urination => dehydration (thirst)
- Low energy, fatigue, vasoconstriction, dry gangrene, retina damage, risk of pneumonia.

Diabetes

101

Sugar

Mellitus

102

Results in inability to move intestinal contents through the bowel.

Bowel obstruction

103

- Stenosis
- Hernia
- Paralysis
- Bile duct
- Volvulus
- Intussusception (invagination)
- Infectious
- Adhesion
- Nervous tension

Causes of obstruction

104

Abnormal constriction of a channel or orfice; e.g., pyloric stenosis

Stenosis

105

Abnormal protrusion of part of organs through abnormal openings.

Hernia

106

Decrease or absence of peristalsis (muscle movement)
e.g., result of postoperative condition or peritonitis

Paralysis

107

Blocked by gallstones.

Bile duct

108

Intestine twists on itself.

Volvulus

109

One part of the intestine slipping into a previous segment of the intestine (e.g., colon telescopes on itself, often at ileocecal juncture).

Intussusception

110

The body or part of it is invaded by a pathogenic agent that, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces injurious effects.

Infectious

111

Areas abnormally linked together; may result from previous surgery or inflammation.

Adhesion

112

-Tightens every muscle and nerve in the body.
-Restricts normal action, and free and rhythmic flow of substances.
- Is capable of disorganizing the entire digestive system as it inhibits both assimilation (digestion, absorption) and elimination (holds waste materials in the body).

Nervous tension

113

- Edema
- Ascites
- Dehydration
- Emaciation
- Rapid decomposition
- Rapid coagulation of blood
- Jaundice
- Hemorrhage
- Purge
- Distention

Postmortem conditions

114

Abnormal accumulation of fluids in tissues or body cavities.

Edema

115

Accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity.

Ascites

116

Loss of moisture from body tissue which may occur antemortem or postmortem.

Dehydration

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Excessive body wasting.

Emaciation

118

Enzymatic processes.

Rapid decomposition

119

Escape of blood from the vascular system.

Hemorrhage

120

Evacuation of the bowels.

Purge

121

Loss of abdominal muscle tone.

Distention (distension)