Neoplasms and Cysts (Oncology) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neoplasms and Cysts (Oncology) Deck (102):
1

Growth is regulated by genetic program and growth-promoting and/or growth-inhibiting factors.
Limited by contact with other cells.
Once cells are formed, they perform specialized functions.

Normal cells

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Permanent cellular changes triggered by adverse conditions.
-Non-neoplastic changes
-Neoplastic changes

Cellular Alterations

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New growth

Neoplastic

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*Atrophy
*Hypertrophy
*Hyperplasia
*Dysplasia
*Metaplasia

Non-neoplastic changes

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Abnormal development of tissue - altered size, shape and organization of cells; usually follows hyperplasia

Dysplasia

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Replacement of one type of tissue into a form that is not normally found there. (Cell changes into another cell type).

Metaplasia

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Wasting, decrease in size of an organ or tissue

Atrophy

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The enlargement of an organ or part due to the increase in the size of cells composing it.

Hypertrophy

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The increased size of an organ or part due to the excessive, but regulated, increase in the number of cells.

Hyperplasia

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The abnormal, excessive and uncontrolled multiplication of cells with the formation of a mass or new growth of tissue.

Neoplasm (Tumor)

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- Genetic mutation due to exposure to carcinogens, this exposure may increase or promote abnormality of the cell.

Cause of neoplasms

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Cancer-causing agent or substance.

Carcinogen

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Present in the genes, cancer in the colon, breast, and prostate.

Genetic predisposition (carcinogen)

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Fungal toxins (on grains, nuts, peanut butter), viruses (HPV, hepatitis B).

Microbial carcinogen

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UV rays, X-rays, alpha, beta, gamma rays.

Radioactive factors (carcinogen)

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Asbestos, nickel, arsenic (insecticides), formaldehyde (hazard in embalming and making plastics), vinyl chloride (PVC).

Chemical carcinogen

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Estrogen and/pr progesterone (breast, uterus), testosterone (prostate).

Hormones (carcinogen)

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Acrylamide (generated in fried or overheated carbohydrate foods- french fries, potato chips) residue on barbecued meats.

Animal carcinogen

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Smoking and tobacco (lungs), diet (colon cancer: fat, saccharin, nitrates- preservatives in meat and fish), alcohol use, sexual behavior (cervical, penile cancer).

Personal risk behaviors

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-Based on appearance and growth pattern.
Benign
Malignant

Clinical classification of neoplasms

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Type of body tissue from which they arise.

Histological classification of neoplasms

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Not recurrent or progressive; nonmalignant.
- Oma e.g. lipoma

Benign

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Tending or threatening to produce death; harmful. Concerning cancerous growths: growing worse, resisting treatment.
- carcinoma or sarcoma

Malignant

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*Trauma - e.g. spinal column, ligaments, fractures
*Infections
*Degenerative disorders- herniated disc
*Inflammatory diseases- osteroporosis

Causes of Benign Tumors

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-Grow by expansion
-Resemble tissue of origin
-Encapsulated (covered with capsule), makes removal or excision easier
- Do not migrate (do not metastasize)
- Generally do not return after surgical removal
- Do not cause extensive tissue damage
- Do not cause whole body changes
- Generally are not fatal

Benign neoplasm (BN) Characteristics

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The spread of cancer from its primary site to a distant location in the body.

Metastasis

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A group of closely packed cell that cover surfaces, line body cavities, and form secretory parts of glands.

Epithelial tissue

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Adenoma
Papilloma
Nevus
Polyp

Types of epithelial tissue benign neoplams

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A neoplasm formed by glandular (gland) epithelium.

e.g.- Pituitary or adrenal glands

Adenoma

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Circumscribed overgrowth or hypertrophy of the papillae of a cutaneous or mucous surface; caused by HPV.

e.g.- genital warts

Papilloma

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Circumscribed vascular tumor of the skin or other body organs due to hyperplasia of the blood vessels.

e.g.- angioma

Nevus

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Growth or mass of tissue that protrudes from a mucous membrane.

e.g.- of the nose, uterus, rectum, vocal cords

Polyp

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When growing in passageways > blockage

e.g.- digestive system (difficulty in eating), respiratory system (difficulty in breathing).

When growing in enclosed area, may press on normal tissue > tissue death > potentially death of the individual.

e.g.- brain, nerves (pain, loss of sensation or movement)

Consequences of benign neoplasms in epithelial tissue

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Loosely arranged cells and fibers that have nerve and blood supply; they connect, support, protect, transport, and insulate.

Connective tissue

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Bone tumor.

Osteoma

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Cartilage tumor.

Chondroma

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Adipose tissue tumor.

Lipoma

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Blood vessel or lymph vessel tumor.

Angioma

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Benign blood vascular tissue.

Hemangioma

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Tumor-like swelling filled with blood.

Hematoma

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Fibrous, encapsulated tissue; irregular in shape, firm consistency.

e.g.- jaws, pelvis, vertebrae

Fibroma

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Grows from mastoid process producing an external swelling.

Mastoid osteoma

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Uncommon, usually recurrent benign tumor of embryonic adipose tissue that occurs predominantly in children; on the extremities, neck.

Lipoblastoma

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Painless, slowly growing, solid tumor that distorts shape of tissue; resembles a cauliflower ear.

Chondroma of auricle

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Osteoma
Chondroma
Lipoma
Angioma
Hemangioma
Hematoma
Fibroma
Mastoid osteoma
Lipoblastoma
Chondroma of auricle

Types of benign connective tissue neoplasms

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Highly vascular tissue that allows movement of body parts and materials through tubes.

Muscle tissue

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Rhabdomyoma
Leiomyoma

Types of benign neoplasms in muscular tissue

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Striated (skeletal and cardiac) muscle tissue tumor; usually infants and young children, heart disorders (valve disease or arrhythmias).

Rhabdomyoma

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Smooth muscle tissue tumor.

Leiomyoma

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Form processes, recognize environmental changes, drives responses.

Nervous tissue

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Tumor composed of nerve cells.

Neuroma

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*Grow by infiltration
*Metastasize creation secondary foci (Locations)
*Can reoccur when surgically removed
*Cause extensive tissue damage
*Cause total body changes
*Tumor does not resemble tissue surrounding it
*Lethal unless treated

Characteristics of Malignant Neoplasm

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Lung
breast
colon

Most common cancers

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Malignant growth/tumor arising from epithelium.

Carcinoma

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Melanoma
Squamous cell carcinoma
Basal cell carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma
Transitional cell carcinoma

Types of carcinomas

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A malignant pigmented mole; arise from melanocytes.

Melanoma

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Pigment producing cells in skin.

Melanocytes

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Tumor of epidermal (skin) squamous cells.

Squamous cell carcinoma

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Tumor of the basal cells of the epidermis (skin).

Basal cell carcinoma

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Arising from glandular (gland) organ.

Adenocarcinoma

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Tumor of the urinary system (kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder or urethra).

Transitional cell carcinoma

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-Least common, but most serious form of skin cancer.
-Irregular outline, more than one color.
-Grows over weeks and months anywhere on the body (not just in places that get a lot of sun).
-If untreated, it can metastasize.
-Arises from melanoctyes

Melanoma

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-Carcinoma of the urinary system.
-Smoking cigarettes, inhaled carcinogens (rubber workers, pesticide applicators) increase the risk.

Transitional cell carcinoma

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-Hematuria
-Frequent, urgent, painful urination
-Urinary incontinence
-Abdominal pain
-Anemia

Symptoms of Transitional Cell Carcinoma

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Tumor arising from connective tissue.

Sarcoma

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Osteosarcoma
Chondrosarcoma
Liposarcoma
Angiosarcoma
Fibrosarcoma
Lymphoma
Lukemia

Types of malignant neoplasms of the connective tissue.

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Bone tumor.

Osteosarcoma

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Cartilage tumor.

Chondrosarcoma

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Adipose tissue tumor.

Liposarcoma

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Tumor of the vascular (forming vessels) endothelial cells.

Angiosarcoma

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Tumor formed by fibrous tissue.

Fibrosarcoma

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Tumor of the lymphatic system that arise in the lymph nodes or in other lymphoid tissue.

Lymphoma

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Tumor of blood forming structures/organs.

Leukemia

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Rhabdomyosarcoma
Leiomyosarcoma

Types of muscular tissue malignant neoplasms

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Tumor of striated (muscle and heart) muscle tissue.

Rhabdomyosarcoma

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Tumor of smooth muscle tissue.

Leiomyosarcoma

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Glioma

Nervous tissue malignant neoplasm

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Tumor of neuroglial cells. (nerve tissue).

Glioma

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lymphatic system, blood, liver, lungs brain.

Metastasis of epithelial tissue carcinoma

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Axillary lymph nodes, lung, liver, bone, brain.

Metastasis of breast cancer

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Liver, lung, peritoneum.

Metastasis of colorectal cancer

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Peritoneum, diaphragm, liver, lungs.

Metastasis of ovarian cancer

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Bone

Metastasis of prostate cancer

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Lungs, liver.

Metastasis of testicular cancer

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Excessive wasting away of the body.

Emaciation

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Emaciation
Discoloration
Hemorrhage
Tissue deformation
Extravascular obstruction
Cachexia
Dehydration

Postmortem conditions of neoplasms

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Abnormal growth of tumors.

Tissue deformation

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Tumors put pressure on tissues or organs.

Extravascular obstruction

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Severe form of malnutrition; physical wasting (emaciation) with loss of weight and muscle mass caused by chronic progressive disease.

Cachexia

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Sacs within or on the body surface containing air or fluid.
Can occur anywhere on the body and vary in size.

Cysts

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-Wear and tear or obstructions to flow of fluid
-Infections
-Tumors
-Chronic inflammatory conditions
-Genetic conditions
-Defects during embryonic development

Etiology of Cysts

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-Ovarian
-Sebaceous
-Within the thyroid gland
-Breast- part of benign proliferative disease (fibrocystic breast disease)

Types of Cysts

93

Benign, fluid-filled sacs on or near the ovary.

Ovarian cyst

94

Physiologic
Neoplastic

Types of ovarian cysts

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Forming on normally functioning ovaries, most common, ,may become very large (grapefruit size); have to be removed.

Physiologic ovarian cyst

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Abnormal type not related to function.

Neoplastic ovarian cyst

97

-Low back pain
-Pelvic pain
-Dyspareunia

Symptoms of ovarian cysts

98

Pain during intercourse.

Dyspareunia

99

Sebaceous gland that produces sebum (oil) becomes blocked and sebum collects under the skin (may cause swollen hair follicles).
-Can form anywhere on the body (except for the palms and soles of the feet)
-Most common on scalp, neck, groin area.

Sebaceous cyst (aka epidermal, keratin or epidermoid cysts)

100

Fluid-filled cyst that causes a bulge and a feeling of tightness behind your knee.

Baker cyst (popliteal)

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Noncancerous lumps that most commonly develop along the tendons or joints of wrists, hands, ankles, or feet; typically round or oval and are filled with jelly-like fluid.

Ganglion cysts

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A bacterial infection of the oil glands causing formation of a cyst.

Chalazion