Flashcards in Neoplasms and Cysts (Oncology) Deck (102)
Growth is regulated by genetic program and growth-promoting and/or growth-inhibiting factors.
Limited by contact with other cells.
Once cells are formed, they perform specialized functions.
Permanent cellular changes triggered by adverse conditions.
Abnormal development of tissue - altered size, shape and organization of cells; usually follows hyperplasia
Replacement of one type of tissue into a form that is not normally found there. (Cell changes into another cell type).
Wasting, decrease in size of an organ or tissue
The enlargement of an organ or part due to the increase in the size of cells composing it.
The increased size of an organ or part due to the excessive, but regulated, increase in the number of cells.
The abnormal, excessive and uncontrolled multiplication of cells with the formation of a mass or new growth of tissue.
- Genetic mutation due to exposure to carcinogens, this exposure may increase or promote abnormality of the cell.
Cause of neoplasms
Cancer-causing agent or substance.
Present in the genes, cancer in the colon, breast, and prostate.
Genetic predisposition (carcinogen)
Fungal toxins (on grains, nuts, peanut butter), viruses (HPV, hepatitis B).
UV rays, X-rays, alpha, beta, gamma rays.
Radioactive factors (carcinogen)
Asbestos, nickel, arsenic (insecticides), formaldehyde (hazard in embalming and making plastics), vinyl chloride (PVC).
Estrogen and/pr progesterone (breast, uterus), testosterone (prostate).
Acrylamide (generated in fried or overheated carbohydrate foods- french fries, potato chips) residue on barbecued meats.
Smoking and tobacco (lungs), diet (colon cancer: fat, saccharin, nitrates- preservatives in meat and fish), alcohol use, sexual behavior (cervical, penile cancer).
Personal risk behaviors
-Based on appearance and growth pattern.
Clinical classification of neoplasms
Type of body tissue from which they arise.
Histological classification of neoplasms
Not recurrent or progressive; nonmalignant.
- Oma e.g. lipoma
Tending or threatening to produce death; harmful. Concerning cancerous growths: growing worse, resisting treatment.
- carcinoma or sarcoma
*Trauma - e.g. spinal column, ligaments, fractures
*Degenerative disorders- herniated disc
*Inflammatory diseases- osteroporosis
Causes of Benign Tumors
-Grow by expansion
-Resemble tissue of origin
-Encapsulated (covered with capsule), makes removal or excision easier
- Do not migrate (do not metastasize)
- Generally do not return after surgical removal
- Do not cause extensive tissue damage
- Do not cause whole body changes
- Generally are not fatal
Benign neoplasm (BN) Characteristics
The spread of cancer from its primary site to a distant location in the body.
A group of closely packed cell that cover surfaces, line body cavities, and form secretory parts of glands.
Types of epithelial tissue benign neoplams
A neoplasm formed by glandular (gland) epithelium.
e.g.- Pituitary or adrenal glands