Neoplasms and Cysts (Oncology) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neoplasms and Cysts (Oncology) Deck (102)
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1

Growth is regulated by genetic program and growth-promoting and/or growth-inhibiting factors.
Limited by contact with other cells.
Once cells are formed, they perform specialized functions.

Normal cells

2

Permanent cellular changes triggered by adverse conditions.
-Non-neoplastic changes
-Neoplastic changes

Cellular Alterations

3

New growth

Neoplastic

4

*Atrophy
*Hypertrophy
*Hyperplasia
*Dysplasia
*Metaplasia

Non-neoplastic changes

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Abnormal development of tissue - altered size, shape and organization of cells; usually follows hyperplasia

Dysplasia

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Replacement of one type of tissue into a form that is not normally found there. (Cell changes into another cell type).

Metaplasia

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Wasting, decrease in size of an organ or tissue

Atrophy

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The enlargement of an organ or part due to the increase in the size of cells composing it.

Hypertrophy

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The increased size of an organ or part due to the excessive, but regulated, increase in the number of cells.

Hyperplasia

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The abnormal, excessive and uncontrolled multiplication of cells with the formation of a mass or new growth of tissue.

Neoplasm (Tumor)

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- Genetic mutation due to exposure to carcinogens, this exposure may increase or promote abnormality of the cell.

Cause of neoplasms

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Cancer-causing agent or substance.

Carcinogen

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Present in the genes, cancer in the colon, breast, and prostate.

Genetic predisposition (carcinogen)

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Fungal toxins (on grains, nuts, peanut butter), viruses (HPV, hepatitis B).

Microbial carcinogen

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UV rays, X-rays, alpha, beta, gamma rays.

Radioactive factors (carcinogen)

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Asbestos, nickel, arsenic (insecticides), formaldehyde (hazard in embalming and making plastics), vinyl chloride (PVC).

Chemical carcinogen

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Estrogen and/pr progesterone (breast, uterus), testosterone (prostate).

Hormones (carcinogen)

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Acrylamide (generated in fried or overheated carbohydrate foods- french fries, potato chips) residue on barbecued meats.

Animal carcinogen

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Smoking and tobacco (lungs), diet (colon cancer: fat, saccharin, nitrates- preservatives in meat and fish), alcohol use, sexual behavior (cervical, penile cancer).

Personal risk behaviors

20

-Based on appearance and growth pattern.
Benign
Malignant

Clinical classification of neoplasms

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Type of body tissue from which they arise.

Histological classification of neoplasms

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Not recurrent or progressive; nonmalignant.
- Oma e.g. lipoma

Benign

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Tending or threatening to produce death; harmful. Concerning cancerous growths: growing worse, resisting treatment.
- carcinoma or sarcoma

Malignant

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*Trauma - e.g. spinal column, ligaments, fractures
*Infections
*Degenerative disorders- herniated disc
*Inflammatory diseases- osteroporosis

Causes of Benign Tumors

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-Grow by expansion
-Resemble tissue of origin
-Encapsulated (covered with capsule), makes removal or excision easier
- Do not migrate (do not metastasize)
- Generally do not return after surgical removal
- Do not cause extensive tissue damage
- Do not cause whole body changes
- Generally are not fatal

Benign neoplasm (BN) Characteristics

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The spread of cancer from its primary site to a distant location in the body.

Metastasis

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A group of closely packed cell that cover surfaces, line body cavities, and form secretory parts of glands.

Epithelial tissue

28

Adenoma
Papilloma
Nevus
Polyp

Types of epithelial tissue benign neoplams

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A neoplasm formed by glandular (gland) epithelium.

e.g.- Pituitary or adrenal glands

Adenoma

30

Circumscribed overgrowth or hypertrophy of the papillae of a cutaneous or mucous surface; caused by HPV.

e.g.- genital warts

Papilloma