Embryology I Flashcards Preview

aNeuro Exam I- Lindsey's > Embryology I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Embryology I Deck (58):
1

What does the metencephalon become?

  • the brain stem
  • pons
  • cerebellum
  • 4th ventricle

2

Where does neural cell proliferation occur?

in the ventricular zones (near the lumen of the neural tube)

3

In the telecephalon, the gray matter is located ____.

on the outside

4

The notocord will eventually develop into the _____.

nucleus pulposus

5

The neural progenitors of the spinal cord closest to the ventral aspect of the neural tube will develop into _____.

motor neurons

6

The _____ will eventually develop into the nucleus pulposus.

notocord

7

What is the cephalic flexure?

the bend btw the brain and brainstem/diecephalon and mesencephalon

8

How many segments does the prosencephalic vescicle form into?

3

9

The ____ plate becomes the afferent side of the spinal tract.

alar

10

A signal from the implanting trophoblast induces a "head organizer" that generates factor _____.

Cerebrus

11

Above the cephalic flexure, the dorsal direction is towards the top of the head, while below it, the dorsal direction is ______.

towards the back

12

How does sonic hedgehog (Shh) influence neurulation?

it induces the overlying ectoderm to divide, creating the neural plate

13

The caudal cell mass at day 28-32 ultimately gives rise to the ____ and ____.

  • conus medullaris
  • filum terminale

14

____ genes play a fundamental role in the AP patterning of nervous tissue.

Homeobox

15

Above the cephalic flexure, the dorsal direction is ______, while below it, the dorsal direction is towards the back.

towards the top of the head

16

What does the sulcus limitans do?

separates the ventral population from the dorsal population in the neural tube

17

How many rhombomeres are there?

8

18

From which embryological structure do the cerebral hemispheres and lateral ventricles all arise?

the telecephalon

19

In the forebrain, the neural tube will develop into what 3 discrete proliferative zones?

  1. cortex (dorsal)
  2. ganglionic eminences (medial and lateral)
  3. basal forebrain (ventral)

20

In the spinal cord, the gray matter is located ____.

on the inside

21

The _____ plate becomes the efferent side of the spinal tract.

basal

22

How many cell layers make up the cerebral cortex?

6

23

The basal plate becomes the ______ side of the spinal tract.

efferent

24

For patterning along the AP(RC) axis, the principal morphogens appear to be ____, ____, and _____.

  • Wnts
  • FGFs
  • Retinoic Acid (RA)

25

Hox genes cause the development of _____.

the 8 rhombomeres

26

What axis does an entering sperm into an egg create?

the embryonic/abembryonic axis

27

___ genes cause the development of the 8 rhombomeres.

Hox

28

Hox gene expression varies according to position along the _____.

AP axis

29

Above the ______, the dorsal direction is towards the top of the head, while below it, the dorsal direction is towards the back.

cephalic flexure

30

The alar plate becomes the ______ side of the spinal tract.

afferent

31

The edge that leads implantation will become the ____ end of the embryo.

caudal

32

From which embryological structure do the the brain stem, pons, cerebellum, and 4th ventricle all arise?

the metencephalon

33

On what side of the blastocyst does implantation occur?

the ICM side

34

What does the myelencephalon become?

  • the brain stem
  • medulla oblongata
  • 4th ventricle

35

What signaling molecule does the notocord release?

sonic hedgehog (Shh)

36

What does the mesecephalon become?

  • the brain stem
  • midbrain
  • cerebral aqueduct

37

What does the dorsal population of neural tube cells become?

the alar plate

38

What is the first event that establishes symmetry in the mammalian egg?

sperm entry

39

The gray matter regions will become either the ____ plate or the _____ plate.

basal; alar

40

From which embryological structure do the brain stem, medulla oblongata, and 4th ventricle all arise?

the myelencephalon

41

The fiber pathway that splits the ganglionic eminence is the _____.

internal capsule

42

What causes dorsoventral patterning in the forebrain?

  • morphogen gradients
  • regional gene transcription changes

43

What does the ventral population of neural tube cells become?

the basal plate

44

From which embryological structure do the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and third ventricle all arise?

the diencephalon

45

From which embryological structure do the brain stem, midbrain, and cerebral aqueduct all arise?

the mesecephalon

46

What are the components of the basal ganglia?

  • putamen
  • globus pallidus
  • caudate nucleus

47

During cell migration in the telencephalon, each successive migration forms a more ______ layer of cells.

superficial

48

The neural progenitors of the spinal cord develop into distinct populations based on _____.

their position along the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis

49

Excess _____ causes an excess of posterior structures and is a powerful teratogen.

Retinoic Acid (RA)

50

What does the diencephalon become?

  • the thalamus
  • hypothalamus
  • epithalamus
  • third ventricle

51

What does the endoderm form?

the lining of the gut

52

How many segments does the mesencephalic vescicle form into?

none

53

What is the crease in the neural tube called?

the sulcus limitans

54

What is the sulcus limitans?

the crease in the neural tube

55

The cells making up the walls of the neural tube become ____ and ____ cells.

neurons; glial

56

How are the lateral ventricles connected?

they're not- they connect to the 3rd ventricle

57

What does the telencephalon become?

  • the cerebral hemispheres
  • lateral ventricles

58

How many segments does the rhombencephalic vescicle form into?

2