Neurons, Glia, Brain Tissue Flashcards Preview

aNeuro Exam I- Lindsey's > Neurons, Glia, Brain Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurons, Glia, Brain Tissue Deck (52):
1

White matter contains mostly _____.

myelinated axons

2

Myelin consists of?

fat/lipid bilayers

3

Gray matter is collections of ___, ____, and _____.

cell bodies, dendrites, synapses

4

Cell bodies all live in the _____.

gray matter

5

What is a ganglion?

a collection of neural cell bodies outside of the CNS

6

This is a collection of neural cell bodies outside of the CNS.

a ganglion

7

What is a primary afferent neuron?

the first neuron that receives info from the outside world and relays it toward the CNS

8

This is the first neuron that receives info from the outside world and relays it toward the CNS.

a primary afferent neuron

9

What is a primary efferent neuron?

the first neuron that directs info from the CNS to the effector cell

10

This is the first neuron that directs info from the CNS to the effector cell.

a primary efferent neuron

11

What are glial cells?

the supportive cells

12

Neurons contain many mitochondria and distinctive collections of rough ER called _____.

Nissl substance (Nissl bodies)

13

Neurons contain many mitochondria and distinctive collections of ____ called Nissl substance (Nissl bodies)

rough ER

14

Can the CNS axons regenerate?

yes, but the astrocytes prevent regeneration

15

Name 6 functions of glia.

potassium buffering
recycling of neurotransmitters
nutrient support
myelination
BBB
supply of growth and trophic factors

16

Name the cell that possesses these functions?
potassium buffering
recycling of neurotransmitters
nutrient support
myelination
BBB
supply of growth and trophic factors

glial cell

17

Conduction in a neuron (pathway) is?

dendrite--> cell body (soma)--> axon

18

In general, axons of this diameter are myelinated.

>1 micrometer

19

In general, axons >1 micrometer diameter are ______.

myelinated

20

What is a synapse?

where the end of an axon contacts the dendrite of the next cell

21

This is where the end of an axon contacts the dendrite of the next cell.

a synapse

22

Most synapses are ____ in nature.

chemical

23

Where are NTs packaged?

in vesicles in the presynaptic terminal

24

When an AP reaches the terminal, _____ influx permits fusion of the vesicles within the plasma membrane, thereby dumping NT.

Ca++

25

Name 2 general classes of NT receptors.

ionotropic and metabotropic

26

What is an ionotropic receptor?

a receptor that allows the flow of ions to depolarize or hyperpolarize a cell

27

This is a receptor that allows the flow of ions to depolarize or hyperpolarize a cell.

ionotropic receptor

28

What is a metabotropic receptor?

receptors that activate 2nd messenger systems w/I the neuron

29

This is a receptor that activates 2nd messenger systems w/I the neuron.

metabotropic receptors

30

Name 3 types of glial cells within the CNS.

microglia
oligodendrocytes
astrocytes

31

What is the major type of glial cell in the PNS?

Schwann cells

32

What are microglia?

tiny, phagocytic glial cells in the CNS
arise outside the neural tube
key role in chronic pain syndrome

33

Name 2 types of glia that form myelin.

oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells

34

What is an oligodendrocyte?

cells that form the myelin in the CNS; can myelinate several axons

35

Name the cell:
tiny, phagocytic glial cells in the CNS
arise outside the neural tube
key role in chronic pain syndrome

microglia

36

These cells form the myelin in the CNS; can myelinate several axons

an oligodendrocyte

37

What is a Schwann cell?

cells that form the myelin in the PNS; can myelinate only one axon

38

These cells form the myelin in the PNS; can myelinate only one axon.

Schwann cells

39

What is an astrocyte?

large, star-shaped glia
maintain ionic equilibrium
remove extra K+
clear and recycle NTs
convert glutamate to glutamine
envelop all CNS blood vessels and regulate blood flow

40

Name the cell:
large, star-shaped glia
maintain ionic equilibrium
remove extra K+
clear and recycle NTs
convert glutamate to glutamine
envelop all CNS blood vessels and regulate blood flow

an astrocyte

41

Minor damage to peripheral nerves is usually repaired by _____, which is facilitated by _____.

regeneration of the damaged axons; Schwann cells

42

What happens when the CNS is damaged?

oligodendroglia don't clear the debris; a glial scar is formed to prevent axonal regeneration

43

How are proteins transported from the nucleus to the axon terminal and back?

by axoplasmic flow

44

What is axoplasmic flow?

the active transport of proteins from the nucleus to the axon terminal and back

45

What does the nucleolus do?

it makes the ribosomes

46

Neurons make a larger diversity of _____ and a larger amount of them.

proteins

47

What are breaks in the myelin sheath called?

Nodes of Ranvier

48

What is a Node of Ranvier?

a break in the myelin sheath

49

Myelin increases conduction velocity by a factor of ___.

10

50

A local increase in neuronal activity results in a substantial increase in _____.

local blood flow

51

What is an increase in neuronal activity, thereby increasing blood flow, called?

functional hyperemia

52

How is blood flow increase with increased neuronal activity?

they release NO and nearby astrocytes convert glutamate to EET to dilate the BVs