Introduction to Neuropathology- CNS cells Flashcards Preview

aNeuro Exam I- Lindsey's > Introduction to Neuropathology- CNS cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Neuropathology- CNS cells Deck (58):
1

What do abnormal lysosomes in the neurons do?

gradually fill the cell body and processes, leading to destruction of the neuron

2

Bielschowsky stain shows normal axons and dendrites but also reveals the lesions of ______.

Alzheimer's disease

3

What do cross bridges of tau protein and microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) do?

they link neurotubules together

4

What is the main job of the oligodendrocyte?

make myelin in the CNS

5

Where is the most common site of Wallerian degeneration?

the corticospinal tract

6

What are ependymal cells?

cells that line the ventricular cavities

7

What is neuropil?

the matrix of the cerebral gray matter

8

_____ are the target for the viral infection in AIDS.

Microglia/monocytes

9

Repair by _____ is less effective than collagenous repair and cysts are often the consequence of large destructive lesions in the CNS.

astrocytes

10

Intracytoplasmic neuronal inclusions can be seen in______ and _____.

cytomegalic inclusion body disease; rabies

11

This is diffuse deposition of Rosenthal fibers resulting in white matter degeneration and neuro dysfunction.

Alexander disease

12

These are extracellular and distal manifestations of Alzheimer's disease where amyloid accumulates in the brain.

classic neuritic plaques

13

What is the pathognomonic feature of Pick body disease (dementia)?

Pick bodies

14

____ stain shows normal axons and dendrites but also reveals the lesions of Alzheimer's disease.

Bielschowsky

15

In the adult brain, the neuron is a _____, _____ cell.

post-mitotic, nonreplaceable

16

What is the H&E stain for?

DNA/RNA but not neuronal processes

17

These are homogenous, eosinophilic, elongated, or globular inclusions in astrocytic processes seen in old brain scars.

Rosenthal fibers

18

What is the perivascular (Virchow-Robin) space?

subarachnoid space that dips into the CNS

19

How are neurotubules linked together?

cross bridges of tau protein and microtubule associated proteins (MAPs)

20

What are classic neuritic plaques?

extracellular and distal manifestations of Alzheimer's disease where amyloid accumulates in the brain

21

What is the pathognomonic feature of Parkinson's disease?

Lewy bodies

22

____ are the most sensitive cell in the brain to sudden decreases in O2 or glucose.

Neurons

23

How long can neurons survive anoxia?

5-15 minutes max

24

Can oliodendrocytes regenerate?

regeneration is very limited

25

The neuropil is traversed by ______.

blood vessels

26

Axons and dendrites are best viewed using ____ stains.

silver

27

Name 5 cells within the brain.

  1. neurons
  2. astrocytes
  3. oligodendrocytes
  4. ependymal cells
  5. microglia

28

In _____, abnormal filaments appear in the perikaryon, forming neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs).

Alzheimer's disease

29

What is the subarachnoid space that dips into the CNS called?

the perivascular (Virchow-Robin) space

30

What can persistent microglia activation cause?

damage --> Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, HIV encephalopathy, etc

31

How can ischemic neurons be ID'd histologically, and what are they called?

they're shrunken, eosinophilic, and nucleus is pyknotic; called red cell neurons

32

What is the major scar former in the CNS?

astrocytes

33

Myelin is a special cell membrane-derived insulation for axons which facilitates efficient ______ conduction.

saltitory

34

What is the largest, longest, and most metabolically active cell in the body?

the neuron

35

How are oligodendrocytes different than Schwann cells?

they're in the CNS and they myelinate many cells at once with a different type of myelin

36

Neurons are in close contact with their "caregivers," the _____.

oligodendrocytes

37

Where do microglia come from?

blood monocytes

38

Astrocyte cytoplasm contains intermediate filaments that are made of a distinct protein, _____.

glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)

39

What are tanycytes?

ependymal cells that serve various neuroendocrine or ionic transport functions

40

What is Wallerian degeneration?

an axonal alteration where the axon is transected and the portion distal to the transection degenerates bc the energy source is cut off

41

What are the functions of microglia?

  • phagocytosis
  • monitor CNS environment
  • restore homeostasis

42

What is Alexander disease?

diffuse deposition of Rosenthal fibers resulting in white matter degeneration and neuro dysfunction

43

In Alzheimer's disease, abnormal filaments appear in the _____, forming _____.

perikaryon; neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs)

44

Why are glial fibrillary acidic proteins (GFAPs) important?

Abs to them can demonstrate reactive and neoplastic astrocytes; mutations of them cause Alexander disease

45

What are microglia?

phagocytes/APCs in the brain (but have to migrate there)

46

Describe unique features of the organelles w/I a neuron.

  • large, round vesicular nucleus
  • prominent nucleolus
  • stacks of rER (Nissl substance)

47

What is the difference between a neurofilament and a neurotubule?

  • neurofilament = 10nm
  • neurotubule = 20-26nm polymers of alpha and beta tubulin

48

What is the pathognomonic feature of Alzheimer's disease?

neurofibrillary tangles

49

During brain development, certain astrocytes known as ______ have a key role as "scaffolds" to allow neuronal migration.

radial glia

50

The matrix of the cerebral gray matter is the _____.

neuropil

51

What are Rosenthal fibers?

homogenous, eosinophilic, elongated, or globular inclusions in astrocytic processes seen in old brain scars

52

What is cytoplasmic lipofuscin?

a lysosomal enzyme/neuronal storage disease

53

Why do Alzheimer type II astrocytes develop?

due to severe liver damage in hepatic encephalopathy

54

What are some pathologies of oligodendroglia?

  • they are lost in MS
  • infected by viruses in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
  • accumulate material in lysosomes in metachromatic leukodystrophy

55

This occurs when the neuronal cytoplasm becomes smooth and the nucleus is displaced toward the periphery; it means that the neuron has been disconnected from its target.

central chromatolysis

56

What is central chromatolysis and what does is signify?

  • when the neuronal cytoplasm becomes smooth and the nucleus is displaced toward the periphery
  • means that the neuron has been disconnected from its target

57

What are some ependymal cell pathologies?

disruption and loss in hydrocephalus, bacterial ventriculitis, or viral infections

58

Do astrocytes form the BBB?

no, but they help regulate/modulate it