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Flashcards in Synaptic Physiology II Deck (58):
1

What strain of botulinum is the most common in the US?

type A

2

In the heart, parasympathetic neurons release _____ onto the pacemaker cells.

ACh

3

How does botulinum work?

it prevents the release of ACh across the synaptic cleft (pre-synaptic)

4

This is a protein that helps the Ca++ fuse the vesicle membranes.

synaptotagmin

5

What does botulinum neurotoxin predominantly affect?

the PNS nerve endings

6

How can a synapse be silent?

it doesn't contain AMPA receptors (yet)

7

What is the NT for the NMDA receptor?

glutamate

8

In the heart, cAMP stimulates ____, which phosphorylates ____, allowing them to open.

PKA; Ca++ channels

9

_____ binds to presynaptic stimulatory nerve terminals and blocks the release of ACh.

Botulnum toxin

10

What is a silent synapse?

an excitatory pre-synaptic synapse that does not evoke any change upon firing to the post-synaptic cell

11

How can a pre-synaptic cell be strengthened by NMDA receptor activation?

the entry of Ca++ ions into the postsynaptic dendrite releases NO gas that diffuses back across the synapse to potentiate NT release

12

What tissue does tetanospasmin target?

nervous tissue

13

What is an AMPA receptor?

a postsynaptic glutamate receptor that is very similar to the ACh receptor

14

Where does tetanospasmin initially bind?

to peripheral nerve terminals

15

Synapses in the CNS can be selectively strengthened by the _____.

NMDA receptor

16

What are SNARE proteins?

proteins that teather two membranous structures together (ie synaptic vesicles)

17

What is tetanospasmin? Where is it encoded?

the tetanus toxin; on a plasmid

18

What proteins does tetanospasmin cleave?

synaptobrevin II

19

Where are electrical synapses important?

in the heart and smooth muscle; embryonic cells

20

What is synaptobrevin?

the v-snare protein

21

This prevents the release of ACh across the synaptic cleft (pre-synaptic).

botulinum toxin

22

What is the v-snare? What proteins makes it?

the vesicle snare; synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP-25

23

Increased K+ _____ the membrane.

hyperpolarizes

24

Odorants in the air are _____ for receptors found on the surface of 1a sensory neurons.

ligands

25

___ is the ligand for the opening of Ca++ channels in the heart muscle and neurons.

NE

26

How do silent synapses become normal again?

by activating NMDA receptors, which inserts AMPA receptors into the postsynaptic membrane --> normal response

27

In the heart, ACh binds to ______ receptors on the pacemaker cells, resulting in the opening of a K+ channel.

muscarinic

28

Synapses in the ___ can be selectively strengthened by the NMDA receptor.

CNS

29

How does tetanospasmin work?

it blocks the release of inhibitory NTs across the synaptic cleft

30

Botulnum toxin binds to ________ and blocks the release of _____.

presynaptic stimulatory nerve terminals; ACh

31

These are proteins that teather two membranous structures together (ie synaptic vesicles).

SNARE proteins

32

What is an NMDA receptor?

an excitatory synapse for glutamate that is plugged by a Mg++ ion and is highly permeable to Ca++ ions

33

What do gap junctions contain?

specialized protein pores (connexons) that bridge the gap btw the cells to connect their cytoplasms

34

This is the name for the tetanus toxin.

tetanospasmin

35

NE is the ligand for the opening of Ca++ in the _____ and ____.

heart muscle and neurons

36

____ is the causative agent of tetanus.

Clostridium tetani

37

What is synaptotagmin?

a protein that helps the Ca++ fuse the vesicle membranes

38

In olfaction, the activated G-proteins will activate _____ to synthesize the second messenger, ____.

adenylyl cyclase; cAMP

39

What is associative plasticity?

become potentiated on their own AND when combined with signals from post-synaptic celss

40

What is the 1a symptom of botulism?

flaccid paralysis/weakness

41

What triggers fusion of the SNARE proteins?

Ca++

42

The clostridia toxins include ____ and _____.

tetanus toxin; botulinum neurotoxin

43

An Mg++ ion plugs which kind of receptor?

an NMDA receptor

44

What is syntaxin?

a v-snare protein

45

What do the post-synaptic cells secrete, after Ca++ influxes into the cell?

additional AMPA receptors to increase the size of the glutamate-induced synaptic potentials

46

Where are silent synapses especially prevalent? Why?

the developing brain; to verify appropriate synapse formation

47

These are specialized protein pores (connexons) that bridge the gap btw the cells to connect their cytoplasms.

gap junctions

48

This is an excitatory synapse for glutamate that is plugged by a Mg++ ion and is highly permeable to Ca++ ions.

an NMDA receptor

49

When an odorant binds to its receptor, _____ is initiated.

a G-protein cascade

50

What toxin prefers the PNS nerve endings?

botulinum

51

Tetanus and botulism result from deadly toxins that are actually _____ that selectively cut SNARE proteins, thereby blocking exocytosis.

proteases

52

What is SNAP-25?

a v-snare protein

53

What opens the gate in an NMDA receptor? What removes the Mg++ ion?

synaptic activation; a post-synaptic AP

54

What is the key to neuronal associative learning and makes CNS synapses smart?

the NMDA receptor

55

In the heart, ACh binds to muscarinic receptors on the pacemaker cells, resulting in ______.

the opening of a K+ channel

56

NE is the ligand for the opening of _____ in the heart muscle and neurons.

Ca++ channels

57

Electrical current can spread from one neuron to another where there are _____.

gap junctions

58

This is a postsynaptic glutamate receptor that is very similar to the ACh receptor.

an AMPA receptor