Neuromuscular Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuromuscular Pharmacology Deck (38):
1

What is the mnemonic for s/s of potentially lethal poison exposures (organophosphates) on nicotinic receptors?

MATCH

M- muscle weakness, fasiculations

A- adrenal medulla activity increased

T- tachycardia

C- cramping of skeletal muscles

H- hypertension

2

What is Pralidoxime?

an antidote for organophosphate poisoning (but NOT against carbamate-type inhibitors like neostigmine)

3

What is pancuronium?

a NMJ blocker- paralyzes respiratory muscles

4

What is the mnemonic for s/s of potentially lethal poison exposures (organophosphates) on muscarinic receptors?

DUMBBELLS

D- defecation

U- urination

M- miosis

B- bradycardia

B- bronchospasm, bronchorrhea

E- emesis

L- lacrimation

S- salivation

5

____ and _____ are used to overcome poisoning by nondepolarizing agents but they would worsen NMJ blockade by succinylcholine.

Edrophonium and neostigmine

6

Name an agonist to the Nm receptor.

succinylcholine

7

Name an AChE inhibitor.

  • neostigmine
  • nerve gas

8

This blocks the release of GABA, causing failure of motor reflex inhibition--> excessive contractions occur .

tetanus toxin

9

What can block voltage-gated sodium channels?

lidocaine

10

Black widow spider venom forms pores allowing _____.

excessive Ca++ influx, clumping of vesicles, and explosive ACh release

11

What do these s/s indicate?

MATCH

M- muscle weakness, fasiculations

A- adrenal medulla activity increased

T- tachycardia

C- cramping of skeletal muscles

H- hypertension

potentially lethal poison exposures (organophosphates) on nicotinic receptors

12

Name 2 cholinesterase inhibitors.

  1. AChE
  2. BuChE

13

Name something that increases vesicular ACh release.

increased Ca++

14

_____ is lysed by tetanus toxin after the toxin has been transported in retrograde fashion to the spinal cord.

Synaptobrevin

15

Synaptobrevin is lysed by ______ at the NMJ to prevent vesicle fusion and ACh release, producing flaccid paralysis.

botulinum toxin

16

This is an Nm receptor agonist that opens the channel and allows depolarization but not repolarization --> produces flaccid paralysis.

succinylcholine

17

How does succinylcholine work?

it's an Nm receptor agonist that opens the channel and allows depolarization but not repolarization --> produces flaccid paralysis

18

Edrophonium and neostigmine are used to overcome poisoning by nondepolarizing agents but they would worsen _______.

NMJ blockade by succinylcholine

19

This is a NMJ blocker that paralyzes respiratory muscles.

pancuronium

20

AP depolarization opens ______, allowing ____ influx.

voltage-gated Ca++ channels; Ca++

21

Name 2 inhibitors of vesicular ACh release.

  1. hemicholinum
  2. botulinum toxin

22

What is lidocaine used for?

blocking voltage-gated Na+ channels

23

Synaptobrevin is lysed by botulinum toxin at the NMJ to prevent vesicle fusion and ACh release, producing ______.

flaccid paralysis

24

Synaptobrevin is lysed by _____ after the toxin has been transported in retrograde fashion to the spinal cord.

tetanus toxin

25

The AP depolarization is mediated via Na+ ion inward current through ____.

voltage-gated sodium channels

26

What is the effect of Botox?

decreased ACh release

27

_____ forms pores allowing excessive Ca++ influx, clumping of vesicles, and explosive ACh release.

Black widow spider venom

28

This is an Nm receptor antagonist that blocks channel opening and depolarization to produce flaccid paralysis.

curare

29

What do these s/s indicate?

DUMBBELLS

D- defecation

U- urination

M- miosis

B- bradycardia

B- bronchospasm, bronchorrhea

E- emesis

L- lacrimation

S- salivation

potentially lethal poison exposures (organophosphates) on muscarinic receptors

30

Edrophonium and neostigmine are used to overcome ______ but they would worsen NMJ blockade by succinylcholine.

poisoning by nondepolarizing agents

31

Name 3 antidotes for organophosphate poisoning.

  1. Pralidoxime (but NOT against carbamate-type inhibitors like neostigmine)
  2. atropine
  3. diazepam

32

Name a competitive antagonist to the Nm receptor.

curare

33

Synaptobrevin is lysed by botulinum toxiin at the NMJ to prevent _______, producing flaccid paralysis.

vesicle fusion and ACh release

34

Name 2 inhibitors of depolarization.

  1. curare
  2. snake alpha-toxins

35

How does curare work?

it's an Nm receptor antagonist that blocks channel opening and depolarization to produce flaccid paralysis

36

What is the initial sign of organophosphate poinsoning?

muscarinic excess with double vision

37

Name a inhibitor of muscle contraction.

dantrolene

38

How does tetanus toxin work?

it blocks the release of GABA, causing failure of motor reflex inhibition and excessive contractions occur