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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (73):
1

hormones produced by basophils of anterior pituitary

FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
("B-FLAT")

2

hormones produced by acidophils of anterior pituitary

GH, PRL

3

GLUT 1 found in

RBCs, brain, cornea, placenta

4

GLUT 2 found in

islet cells, liver, kidney, small intestine. it's bidirectional

5

GLUT 3 found in

brain, placenta

6

GLUT 4 found in

adipose tissue, striated muscle. This is the only one that is insulin dependent

7

GLUT 5 found in

spermatocytes, GI tract. used for fructose

8

insulin receptors are of which class

tyrosine kinase

9

effect of insulin on Na+

increases retention in kidneys

10

effect of TRH

increases TSH and prolactin

11

effect of somatostatin on pituitary

decreases GH and TSH

12

effect of dopamine on pituitary

decreases prolactin and TSH

13

effect of PRL on hormone release

decreases GnRH

14

ADH acts on vessels via which receptor

V1

15

ADH acts on kidneys via which receptor

V2

16

17-hydroxylase def: effects on BP, cortisol, and sex hormones

increased BP
decreased sex hormones and cortisol

17

21-hydroxylase def: effects on BP, cortisol, and sex hormones

increased sex hormones
decreased BP and cortisol

18

11-hydroxylase def: effects on BP, cortisol, and sex hormones

increased sex hormones and BP
decreased cortisol

19

labs 17-hydroxylase deficiency

decreased androstenedione

20

labs 21-hydroxylase deficiency

increased renin, increased 17-hydroxyprogresterone

21

labs 11-hydroxylase deficiency

decreased renin

22

ACTH activates

cholesterol desmolase to form pregnenolone

23

physiologic effects of vitamin D

increases gut absorption of Ca and phosphate

24

which cells produce PTH

chief cells of parathyroid

25

effect of moderately low Mg2+ on PTH release

increases

26

effect of extremely low Mg2+ on PTH release

decreases

27

which cells produce calcitonin

parafollicular (C cells) of thyroid

28

physiologic effects of calcitonin

mainly/only decreases bone resorption

29

BNP, ANP, EDRF (for NO) use this signaling pathway

cGMP

30

FSH, LH, TSH, hCG, CRH, ADH (V2), MSH, PTH use this signaling pathway

cAMP

31

calcitonin, GHRH, glucagon use this signaling pathway

cAMP

32

GnRH, oxytocin, ADH (V1), TRH, H1, AT II, gastrin use this pathway

IP3

33

insulin, IGF-1, FGF, PDGF, EGF use this signaling pathway

receptor tyrosine kinase (MAP kinase)

34

prolactin, immunomodulators, GH, G-CSF, EPO, and TPO use this signaling pathway

non-receptor tyrosine kinase (JAK/STAT)

35

histology of neuroblastoma (adrenal)

Homer-Wright rosettes

36

germline cases of pheochromocytoma are associated with which mutations

NF1, VHL RET (MEN 2a, 2b)

37

cholesterol level in hypothyroidism

hypercholesterolemia (decreased LDL receptor)

38

cholesterol level in hyperthyroidism

hypocholesterolemia (increased LDL receptor)

39

HLA association Hashimoto

DR5

40

which non-neoplastic thyroid disease has Hurthle cells

Hashimoto

41

Wolf-Chaikoff effect

thyroid gland downregulates due to increased iodide

42

Jod-Basedown phenomenon

thyrotoxicosis if you repleat an iodine-deficient person who has autonomous thyroid tissue

43

which cancer has orphan annie eyes

papillary thyroid cancer

44

which thyroid cancer is associated with psammoma bodies

papillary thyroid cancer

45

which is a cancer of thyroid c cells

medullary carcinoma

46

which thyroid cancer is associated with hematogenous spread

follicular carcinoma

47

which thyroid cancer is associated with childhood irradiation

papillary carcinoma

48

what is Nelson syndrome

enlargment of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma after removing both adrenals

49

GH receptor antagonist used for acromegaly

pegvisomant

50

what is Laron syndrome

dwarfism due to defective GH receptors

51

T1DM HLA associations

DR3, DR4

52

presentation of glucagonoma

dermatitis (necrolytic migratory erythemia) diabetes, DVT, declining weight, depression

53

test to suppress gastrin levels/dx ZE

secretin administration

54

MEN 1

pituitary tumor, pancreatic tumor, parathyroid adenoma

55

MEN 2a

pheochromocytoma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, parathyroid hyperplasia

56

MEN 2b

pheochromocytoma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, and mucosal neuromas. Also associated with marfanoid habitus

57

RET is on chromosome...

10

58

MEN1 gene is on chromosome...

11

59

MOA metformin

decreases gluconeogensis, increase glycolysis and peripheral glucose utilization

60

MOA sulfonylureas

close K+ channel to increase insulin release

61

class of drugs: chlorpropamide, tolbutamide

first generation sulfonylureas

62

class of drugs: glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide

second generation sulfonylureas

63

MOA glitazones/thiazolidinediones

increase insulin sensitivity, bind PPAR-gamma

64

MOA meglitinides

bind K+ channel (different site than sulfonylureas)

65

class of drugs: exenatide, liralutide

GLP-1 analogs

66

class of drugs: linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin

DDP4 inhibitors

67

class of drugs pramlintide

amylin analog

68

MOA amylin

decrease gastric emptying and glucagon

69

oral hypoglycemic drugs that do not require islet function

metformin, amylin, SGLT-2 inhibitors (but these aren't used in type 1)

70

class of drugs: acarbose, miglitol

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

71

class of drugs conivaptan, tolvaptan

ADH receptor antagonists

72

MOA fludrocortisone

aldosterone analog with little glucocorticoid effects

73

cinacalcet MOA

sensitizes CaSR to decrease PTH release