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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Deck (69):
1

what is a gastroschisis

like omphalocele, except not covered by peritoneum

2

duodenal atresia associated with which disease

Down syndrome

3

MCC jejunal and ileal atreasia

ischemic necrosis

4

classic electrolyte distrubance in pyloric stenosis

hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis

5

which GI organ comes from mesoderm

spleen

6

frequency of basal electrical rhythms of stomach, duodenum, and ileum

3, 12, 8-9

7

Brunner glands found in

duodenum

8

plicae circulares found in

jejunum and ileum

9

largest number of goblet cells is found in which part of small intestine

ileum

10

right gastric artery comes off of which other artery

common hepatic artery

11

besides endothelial cells, which cells line liver sinusoids

Kupffer cells

12

which cells are in space of Disse

hepatic stellate cells. store vit A when quiescent, and produce ECM when activated

13

which zone of the liver is affected by yellow fever

zone II

14

which zone of the liver has P450 system

zone III

15

what is Hesselbach triangle

triangle formed by rectus abdominis, inferior epigastric vessels, and inguinal ligament

16

indirect inguinal hernias enter internal inguinal ring (medial/lateral) to inferior epigastric arteries

lateral

17

source of gastrin

G cells in antrum and duodenum

18

source of gastric somatostatin

D cells in islets and GI mucosa

19

source of CCK

I cells in duodenum, jejunum

20

source of secretin

S cells in duodenum

21

source of GDIP/GIP

K cells in duodenum, jejunum

22

source of motilin

small intestine

23

source of VIP

parasympathetic ganglia in sphincters, gallbladder, small intestine

24

source of IF

parietal cells

25

source of ghrelin

stomach

26

source of gastric acid

parietal cells

27

source of pepsin

chief cells

28

source of bicarbonate

mucosal cells, salivary glands, pancreas, and brunner glands

29

function and regulation of somatostatin

stop everything. activated by acid, inhibited by vagal stimulation

30

function and regulation of CCK

pancreatic (enzymatic) and gallbladder secretion. stimulated by FAs and AAs

31

function and regulation of secretin

increase bicarb from pancreas. stimulated by acid and fatty acids

32

function and regulation of VIP

watery secretions. stimulated by vagal system and distention

33

transporter for fructose in gut

GLUT-5 in lumen. GLUT2 for entering blood (same as glucose and galactose)

34

RLS for bile acid synthesis

cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase

35

benign salivary cystic tumor with germinal centers

Warthin tumor. aka papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum

36

what is Boerhaave syndrome

transmural distal esophageal rupture with pneumomediastinum

37

what is Menetrier disease

precancerous hyperplasia of stomach mucosa, produces more mucus and causes parietal cell atrophy

38

what is a virchow node

supraclavicular node from stomach met

39

what is a sister mary joseph nodule

subcutaneous periumbilical met

40

stain used for fecal fat

sudan stain

41

lactose intolerance test

>20 ppm change in hydrogen breath test, acidic stool

42

possible cutaneous manifestations of UC and Crohn

pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum

43

possible mucosa/eye manifestations of UC and Crohn

episcleritis, uveitis, aphthous ulcers

44

Zenker diverticulum is through which triangle

Killian

45

uptake study to dx Meckel diverticulum

pertechnetate for ectopic gastric mucosa

46

Hirschsprung is associated with this mutation and this chromosomal anamoly

RET and Down syndrome

47

what are ladd bands

fibrous bands that attach cecum to peritoneal wall. caused by malrotation of midgut in development

48

CRC sequence

APC leads to at-risk colon. KRAS causes adenoma. P53 leads to carcinoma

49

serrated colonic polyps associated with mutatiosn in

BRAF. and microsatellite instability with CpG hypermethylation

50

what chromosome is APC on

5q

51

what is Gardner syndrome

FAP + sarcomas, retinal pigment epithelium hypertrophy, and impacted/supernumerary teeth

52

what is turcot syndrome

FAP + CNS tumor

53

which part of the intestines is always affected when lynch syndrome progresses to CRC

proximal colon

54

in non-lynch syndrome CRC, rank the most common places

rectosigmoid > ascending > descending

55

tumor marker for CRC recurrence

CEA

56

Mallory bodies found in

alcoholic hepatitis

57

angiosarcoma of liver is associated with which carcinogens

arsenic, vinyl chloride

58

mutation in Wilson disease

ATP7B (chr 13), which transports copper

59

Kayser-Fleischer rings

deposits in cornea in Wilson disease

60

HFE is on chromosome...

6

61

onion skin fibrosis of the duct found in

PSC

62

intra- and extra-hepatic ducts affected in

PSC

63

intralobular ducts affected in

PBC

64

extrahepatic ducts obstructed in

secondary biliary cirrhosis

65

black pigment gallstones due to

calcium bilirubinate

66

brown pigment gallstones due to

infection

67

marker for pancreatic cancer

CA 19-9

68

Courvoisier sign

obstructive jaundice with palpable, nontender gallbladder (in pancreatic cancer)

69

class of drugs: cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, nizatidine

H2 blockers