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Flashcards in Reproductive Deck (105):
1

location and function of shh in embryonic limb

ZPA in base of limbs, does anteroposterior patterning (radial to ulnar)

2

location and function of wnt-7 in embryonic limb

AER, does dorsoventral patterning

3

location and function of FGF in embryonic limb

AER, lengthens limb

4

function of Hox genes

segmental organization of embryo in craniocaudal direction

5

result of mutation in Hox genes

limbs in teh wrong locations

6

at what week does fetal heart beat

4

7

at what week do fetal movements begin

8

8

at what week do fetal genitalia have male or female characteristics

10

9

when is the embryonic period

weeks 3-8. period of organogenesis

10

teratogen effect of ACE inhibitors

renal damage

11

teratogen effect of antiepileptic drugs

neural tube defects, cardiac defects, cleft palate, skeletal abnormalities.

supplement with high dose folate

12

teratogen effect of DES

vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma, congenital mullerian anomalies

13

teratogen effect of isoretinoin and vitamin A excess

spontaneous abortions, birth defects

14

teratogen effect of lithium

Ebstein abnormality

15

teratogen effect of methimazole

aplasia cutis congenita

16

teratogen effect thalidomide (!=thionamide)

limb defects

17

teratogen effect wafarin

bone deformities, abortion, opthalmologic abnormalities, fetal hemorrhage

18

fetal defects from maternal diabetes

caudal regression syndrome, congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, macrosomia

19

most severe form of fetal alcohol syndrome

heart-lung fistulas and holoprosencephaly

20

twinning from cleavage of morula stage

monochorionic, diamniotic. 4-8 days

21

twinning from cleavage of blastocyst

monochorionic, monoamniotic. days 8-12

22

twinning from cleavage of 2-cell stage

dichorionic, diamniotic, 0-4 days

23

fetal aortic arch for maxillary artery

1st

24

fetal aortic arch for proximal pulmonary arteries and ductus arteriosus

6th

25

fetal aortic arch for common carotid and proximal ICA

3rd

26

fetal aortic arch for stapedial artery and hyoid artery

2nd

27

fetal aortic arch for the mature aortic arch and right subclavian artery

4th

28

pharyngeal clefts are part of this layer

ectoderm

29

pharyngeal pouches are part of this layer

endoderm

30

pharyngeal arches are part of this layer

mesoderm

31

external auditory meatus is derived from

1st pharyngeal cleft

32

middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells are derived from

1st pharyngeal pouch

33

nerves of 1st pharyngeal arch

V2, V3

34

muscles of 2nd pharyngeal arch

facial expression, stapedius, stylohyoid, posterior digastric

35

cartilage of 2nd pharyngeal arch

Reichert cartilage --> stapes, styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, stylohyoid ligament

36

cartilage of 3rd pharyngeal arch

greater horn of hyoid

37

nerves from 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches

X
4th: superior laryngeal
6th: recurrent laryngeal

38

muscles of 1st pharyngeal arch

muscle of mastication, mylohyoid, anterior digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatine

39

cartilage of 1st pharyngeal arch

maxillary process: maxillay, zygomatic bone

mandibular process: Meckel cartilage, mandible, malleus and incus, sphenomandibular ligament

40

cartilage of 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches

arytenoids, cricoid, corniculate, cuneiform, thyroid

41

muscles of 3rd pharyngeal arch

stylopharyngeus

42

muscles of 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches

4th: pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid, levator veli palatine

6th: intrinisc muscles of larynx except for cricothyroid

43

nerve of 2nd pharyngeal arch

VII (7)

44

nerve of 3rd pharyngeal arch

IX (9)

45

Pierre Robin sequence

defect in 1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches. micrognathia, glossoptosis, cleft palate, airway obstruction

46

Treacher Collins syndrome

defect in 1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches. neural crest dysfunction leads to mandibular hypoplasia and facial abnormalities

47

epithelial lining of palatine tonsil is derived from

2nd pharyngeal pouch

48

thymus is derived from

mostly ventral wing of 3rd pharyngeal pouch

49

inferior parathyroids are derived from

dorsal wing of 3rd pharyngeal pouch

50

superior parathyroids are derived from

dorsal wing of 4th pharyngeal pouch

51

parafollicular thyroid cells are dervied from

ventral wing of 4th pharyngeal pouch

52

Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome

mullerian agenesis in female

53

which cells produce androgens in male

leydig cells

54

which cells produce androgens in female

theca interna cells

55

which cells produce estrogens in female

granulosa cells

56

which cells have fsh receptors in males

sertoli cells

57

which cells have fsh receptors in females

granulosa cells

58

lack of sertoli cells in development of a male leads to

both male and female internal genitalia. sertoli cells produce MIF.

Note: external genitalia will only be male

59

role of testosterone in male development

stimulates wolffian (mesonephros) to form internal male genitalia (except prostate)

60

role of DHT in male development

forms external genitalia and prostate

61

prostate is derived from

urogenital sinus

62

lymphatic drainage of uterus, superior bladder,

external iliac nodes

63

lymphatic drainage of prostate, cervix, corpus cavernosum, proximal vagina

internal iliac nodes

64

lymphatic drainage of distal vagina, vulva, scrotum, distal anus

superficial inguinal nodes

65

lymphatic drainage of glans penis

deep inguinal nodes

66

what ligament connects cervix to side wall of pelvis

cardinal ligament. also contains uterine vessels

67

which cell in males produces androgen-binding protein to maintain local levels of testosterone

sertoli cells

68

which cell in males converts testosterone to estrogen

sertoli cells

69

primary oocyte is arrested in ____ until ____

prophase I until ovulation

70

secondary oocyte is arrested in _____ until _____

metaphase II until fertilization

71

what is Mittelschmerz

pain with ovulation

72

what are hCG levels in Down, Edward, and Patau syndromes

increased in Down syndrome (21)

Decreased in Edward (18) and Patau (13)

73

what does APGAR stand for

appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration

74

threshold for low birth weight

less than 2500g

75

tanner stage for mound on mound breast contour

IV

76

gonadotropin/hormone levels in Klinefelter

high for FSH, LH, estrogen (but low testosterone vs. androgen insensitivity)

77

gonadotropin/hormone levels in Turner

low estrogen, high FSH/LH

78

gonadotropin/hormone levels in androgen insensitivity

increased LH, estrogen and testosterone (vs. Klinefelter)

79

egg and sperm in complete hydatidiform mole

enucleated egg and a single sperm. subsequently duplicates paternal DNA

80

chromosome number in complete hydatidiform mole

46

81

chromosome number in partial hydatidiform mole

69

82

what does HELLP syndrome stand for

hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets

83

anti-hypertensives to use in pregnancy

hydralazine, alpha-methyldopa, labetalol, nifedipine

84

Meigs syndrome

ovarian fibromas, ascities, hydrothorax. pulling sensation on groin

85

thecoma: benign or malignant?

benign

86

granulosa cell tumor: benign or malignant?

malignant

87

what are Call-Exner bodies

granulosa cells (in a granulosa cell tumor) that arranged haphazardly around collections of eosinophilic fluid, resembling primordial follicles

88

treatment of endometritis

gentamicin + clindamycin +/- ampicillin

89

location and appaerance of Bowen disease

leukoplakia on penile shaft

90

location of erythroplasia of Queryat

glans erythroplakia

91

marker in seminoma

increased placental ALP

92

marker in yolk sac tumor

increased AFP

93

maker in choriocarcinoma

increased hCG

94

marker in embryonal carcinoma

increased hCG

95

Reinke crystals are found in

Leydig tumors

96

clomiphene MOA

antagonist at estrogen receptors, eliminates pituitary feedback inhibition

97

name 3 aromatase inhibitors

anastrazole, letrozole, exemestane

98

class of drugs: norethindrone

progestin. also drugs that end in gestrel, gestrol, or progresteron

99

use ulipristal and MOA

anti-progestin, emergency contraception

100

MOA mifepristone

antiprogestine used for abortion

101

beta-2 agonists used to relax uterus

terbutaline, ritodrine

102

MOA danazol

partial androgen agonist, and has been shown to increase C1 esterase inhibitor.

Used in endometriosis and hereditary angioedema

103

selective alpha 1 antagonist for prostate, and specific subtype

tamsulosin. selective for alpha 1 A,D (vs. 1B in vessels)

104

which PDE5 inhibitor is used for BPH

tadalafil

105

which drugs are mostly likely to cause cyanopsia

PDE5 inhibitors