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Flashcards in Renal Deck (69):
1

mesonephros becomes

male genital system

2

paramesonephros becomes

female genital system

3

metanephros becomes

glomerulus through DCT

4

ureteric bud becomes

collecting ducts to ureter

5

MC location for fetal hydronephrosis

ureteropelvic junction

6

trace path of renal artery

RA > segmental > interlobar > arcuate > interlobular > afferent > glomerulus > efferent > vasa recta/peritubular capillaries > venous outflow

7

effective renal plasma flow is measured by clearance of

PAH (para-aminohippuric acid)

8

renal blood flow =

RPF/(1-Hct)

note: plasma fraction by volume = 1-hct

9

estimated Renal Plasma Flow (over/under) estimates true RPF

underestimates slightly

10

filtration fraction (FF) =

GFR/RPF

11

dehydration effects on GFR, RPF, and FF

GFR and RPF go down, but FF goes up

12

FENA =

Na excreted / Na filtered

= (Una * V) / (GFR * Pna)

= (Pcr * Una) / (Ucr * Pna)

13

PTH inhibits phosphate reabsorption in this part of kidney

proximal tubule

14

AT II has this tubular effect

increases water, Na and bicarb reabsorption in proximal tubule (responsible contraction alkalosis)

15

paracellular transport of Mg2+ and Ca2+ into the blood occurs where

thick ascending loop

16

PTH increases Ca absorption in this part of the kidney

early distal tubule. does so by increasing Ca/Na exchange at basement membrane of cell

17

this drug blocks mineralocorticoid receptor but doesn't block androgen receptor

eplerenone

18

these drugs block ENaC

amiloride and triamterine

19

this syndrome syndrome has effects of chronic loop diuretic use

Bartter sydnrome. AR. Causes hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis with increases urine calcium

20

this syndrome has the effects of chronic thiazide use

Gitelman syndrome. AR, less severe than Bartter. Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis, decreases urine calcium

21

this syndrome has the effects of hyperaldosteronism

Liddle syndrome. AD (ENaC gain of function)

22

syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess etiology

deficiency in 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

23

JG cells sense

BP. Note: these are modified smooth muscle cells of afferent arterioles

24

macula densa senses

NaCl. note this is part of DCT

25

effects of dopamine released by PCT

natriuresis. at low doses, dilates to increase RBF (without changing GFR). At high doses, vasoconstricts

26

where does conversion of 25OH D to 1,25 OH D take place?

proximal tubule

27

insulin effects on potassium

shifts into cells

28

digoxin effect on potassium

causes hyperkalemia

29

beta agonist effect on potassium

shifts into cells

30

ECG signs of hypokalemia

U waves and flattened T waves

31

ECG signs of hyperkalemia

wide QRS and peaked T waves

32

low Mg can cause hypo___

hypokalemia

33

high Mg can cause hypo___

hypocalcemia

34

what does MUDPILES stand for

methanol, uremia, DKA, propylene glycol, iron/INH, ethylene glycol, salicylates

35

Diuretics that can cause normal anion gap acidosis

acetazolamide and spironolactone

36

renal tubular acidosis with increased urine pH

Distal RTA (type 1) due to impaired H+ secretion

37

RTA with hyperkalemia

Hyperkalemic RTA (type 4) due to hypoaldosteronism

38

potassium blood levels in proximal RTA (type 2)

hypokalemic

39

deposits in PSGN

subepithelial

40

specific dz assoc with RPGN

goodpasture, wegener, microscopic polyangiitis

41

EM finding Alport syndrome

basket-weave

42

deposits Berger disease

IgA in mesangium

43

deposits in type I MPGN

subendothelial

44

deposits in type II MPGN

intramembranous

note: also called dense deposit disease

45

association with type I MPGN

HBV/HCV

46

association with type II MPGN

c3 nephritic factor

47

tram-track is associated with which syndrome

type I MPGN

48

deposit membranous nephropathy

subepithelial spike and dome

49

associations with membranous nephropathy

primary is antibodies to phospholipase A2 receptor. can also be drug induced, SLE, or HBV/HCV

50

calcium oxalate precipitates with

hypocitraturia

51

calcium oxalate crystal shape

envelope or dumbbell

52

calcium phosphate precipitates with

basic pH

53

calcium phosphate crystal shape

wedge-shaped prism

54

treatment calcium stones

thiazides

55

ammonium magnesium phosphate stones precipitate with

basic pH (urease)

56

ammonium magnesium phosphate crystal shape

coffin lid

57

uric acid stones precipitate with

acidic pH

58

uric acid crystal shape

rhomboid or rosettes

59

cystine stones precipitate with

acidic pH

60

cystine crystal shape

hexagonal

61

renal tumor from collecting ducts

oncocytoma - eosinohphilic cells with abundant mitochondria

62

renal tumor from PCT

RCC

63

denys-drash syndrome

WT1. wilms tumor, early-onset nephrotic syndrome, male pseudohermaphroditism

64

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

WT1. wilms tumor, macroglossia, organomegaly, hemihypertrophy

65

WAGR complex

WT1. wilms tumor, aniridia, GU malformations, retardation

66

diuretic use for those with sulfa allergies

ethacrynic acid (loop target)

67

diuretics that are bad for gout

thiazide and loop

68

calcium excretion in loops is (increased/decreased)

increased. can cause hypocalcemia

69

calcium excretion in thiazides is (increased/decreased)

decreased. good for calcium stones