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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (142):
1

Km =

[S] at 1/2 Vmax

2

Lineweaver Burk plot formula

1/V = (Km/Vmax)(1/[S]) + 1/Vmax

3

A higher Y intercept on a lineweaver Burk plot means

lower vmax

4

the X intercept of a lineweaver burk plot is

-1/Km. Closer to zero = lower affinity

5

A high Km means

low affinity

6

Vd =

(amount of drug in body) / (plasma concentration)

7

CL =

Vd * Ke

8

number of half lives to reach 90% steady state

3.3 (first order only)

9

number of half lives to reach steady state

4-5 (first order only)

10

T 1/2 =

0.693 Vd/CL (first order)

11

Loading dose =

(1/F)(Cp*Vd)

12

Maintenance dose =

(1/F)(Cp*CL*time interval)

13

Drugs with zero-order kinetics

PEA: phenytoin, ethanol, aspirin (at high or toxic concentrations)

14

These are part of sympathetic system but innervated by cholinergic fibers

adrenal medulla (nicotinic) and sweat glands (muscarinic)

15

these are innervated by Nn (nicotinic) nerves

parasympathetic ganglia, adrenal medulla

16

these are innervated by Nm (nicotinic) nerves

NMJ

17

alpha 1 (G, function)

Gq. vascular contraction, close bladder, close GI sphincters, dilate eyes

18

alpha 2 (G, function)

Gi. reduced symp outflow, decrease insulin, decrease lipolysis, decrease aqueous humor production, increase platelet aggregation

19

beta 1 (G, function)

Gs. stimulate heart, renin, lipolysis

20

beta 2 (G, function)

Gs. vasodilate, bronchodilate, increase lipolysis and insulin release, increase aqueous humor, decrease uterine tone, relax ciliary muscle

21

beta 3 (G, function)

Gs. lipolysis, thermogenesis in SKM

22

M1 (G, function)

Gq. CNS, enteric

23

M2 (G, function)

Gi. antagonize heart

24

M3 (G, function)

Gq. exocrine glands/gut, contract bladder, bronchoconstriction, constrict eyes, contract ciliar muscle (accomodation)

25

D1 (G, function)

Gs. relax renal vasculature

26

D2 (G, function)

Gi. neurotransmitters

27

H1 (G, function)

Gq. mucus, permeability, bronchoconstriction, pruritus, pain

28

H2 (G, function)

Gs. gastric acid secretion

29

V1 (G, function)

Gq. vascular smooth muscle contraction

30

V2 (G, function)

Gs. increases H2O permeability in collecting tubules of kidney. "V2 found in the 2 kidneys"

31

Gq acts via this/these pathway(s)

Phospholipase C --> DAG and IP3
DAG --> protein kinase C
IP3 increases intracellular calcium

32

these GPCRs use Gq

H1, A1, V1, M1, M3 (HAVe1 M&M)

33

these GPCRs use Gi

M2, A2, D2 (MAD 2s)

34

Gs/i act via this/these pathway(s)

stimulate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Adenylyl cyclase increases cAMP ---> protein kinase A --> heart contraction, but muscle relaxation elsewhere

35

this drug blocks choline entry

hemicholinium

36

this drug blocks ACh incorporation into vesicles

vesamicol

37

this drug blocks ACh vesicle fusion/NT release

botulinum

38

this drug blocks tyrosine conversion to DOPA

metyrosine

39

this drug blocks dopamine incorporation into vesicles

reserpine

40

this drug prevents nore release

bretylium or guanethidine

41

this drug displaces NE in vesicles and reverses the NET transporter

amphetamines

42

indirect choline agonists used for Alzheimer disease

donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine

43

this is a tertiary amine anticholinergic that crosses the BBB

pysostigmine

44

antispasmodics for IBS

hyoscyamine, dicyclomine (anti-muscarinic)

45

class of drugs for oxybutynin, solifenacin, tolterodine

muscarinic antagonists

46

tropicamide is similar to

atropine

47

albuterol, salmeterol specificity

B2 > B1

48

dobutamine specificity

B1 > B2, a

49

dopamine specificity

D1 = D2 > B > a

50

epi specificity

B > a

51

nore specificity

a1 > a2 > B1

52

fenoldopam specificity

D1

53

Isoproteronol specificity

B1 = B2

54

midodrine specificity

a1

55

phenylephrine specificity

a1 > a2

56

this drug increases NE release (not amphetamines)

ephedrine

57

guanfacine is similar to

clonidine

58

alpha-methyldopa class and application

alpha-2 agonist, used to treat hypertension in pregnancy

59

which adrenergic drugs treat open angle glaucoma by reducing aqueous humors

epi (via a2) and beta blockers

60

which drugs exacerbate closed angle glaucoma

dilators of the eye, including atropine (muscarinic blocker)

61

this drug is contraindicated in cocaine intoxication

beta blockers

62

antidote/tx for acetominophen

n-acetylcysteine (replenishes glutathione)

63

antidote/tx for benzos

flumazenil

64

antidote/tx for copper

penicillamine, trientine

65

antidote/tx for cyanide

nitrite + thiosulfate, hydroxocobalamin

66

antidote/tx for heparin

protamine sulfate

67

antidote/tx for iron

deferoxamine, deferasirox, deferiprone

68

antidote/tx for arsenic or mercury

dimercaprol, succimer

69

antidote/tx for gold

penicillamine, dimercaprol, succimer

70

antidote/tx for lead

EDTA, penicillamine, dimercaprol, succimer

71

antidote/tx for methanol, ethylene glycol

fomepizole (alc dh blocker) > ethanol, dialysis

72

antidote/tx for methemoglobin

methylene blue, vitamin C

73

antidote/tx for salicylate and TCAs

they're acidic, so use sodium bicarbonate. could also use dialysis for salicylates

74

antidote/tx for amphetamines

they're basic so use NH4Cl to acidify urine

75

drugs that cause cutaneous flushing

vancomycin, adenosine, niacin, CCBs, echinocandins (VANCE)

76

this drug prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy

dexrazoxane

77

these drugs cause hyperglycemia

tacrolimus, protease inhibitors, niacin, HCTZ, corticosteroids
("Taking pills Necessitates Having blood Checked")

78

these drugs cause focal to massive hepatic necrosis

halothane, amanita phalloides, valproic acid, acetaminophen (liver "HAVAc")

79

these drugs cause hepatitis

rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, statins, fibrates

80

these drugs cause pancreatitis

didanosine, corticosteroids, alcohol, valproic acid, azathioprine, diuretics (furosemid, HCTZ)
("Drugs Causing A Violent Abdominal Distress")

81

these drugs cause pill-induced esophagitis

tetracyclines, bisphosphonates, potassium chloride

82

these drugs cause agranulocytosis

clozapine, carbamazepine, propylthiouracil, methimazole, colchicine, ganciclovir
"Can Cause Pretty Major Collapse of Granulocytes")

83

these drugs cause aplastic anemia

carbamazepine, methimazole, NSAIDs, benzene, chloramphenicol, propylthiouracil
("Can't Make New Blood Cells Properly")

84

these drugs cause direct coombs-postive hemolytic anemia

methyldopa, penicillin

85

this drug causes gray baby syndrome

chloramphenicol

86

these drugs cause hemolysis in G6PD deficiency

isoniazid, sulfonamides, dapsone, primaquine, aspirin, ibuprofen, nitrofurantoin
(hemolysis "IS D PAIN", note also naphthalene (moth balls) and fava beans in med. type)

87

these drugs cause megaloblastic anemia

phenytoin, methotrexate, sulfa drugs ("having a blast with PMS")

88

these drugs cause fat redistribution

protease inhibitors, glucocorticoids ("Fat PiG")

89

these drugs cause gingival hyperplasia

phenytoin, CCBs, cyclosporine (but not tacrolimus)

90

these drugs cause hyperuricemia

pyrazinamide, thiazides, furosemide, niacin, cyclosporine ("Painful Tophi and Feet Need Care")

91

these drugs cause osteoporosis

steroids, heparin

92

these drugs cause photosensitivity

sulfonamides, amiodarone, tetracyclines, 5FU
("SAT For Photo")

93

these drugs cause Stevens-Johnson

anti-epileptics (especially lamotrigine), allopurinol, sulfa drugs, penicillin

94

these drugs cause teeth discoloration

tetracyclines

95

these drugs cause tendonitis, tendon rupture, and cartilage damage

FQs

96

these drugs cause a Parkinson-like syndrome

antipsychotics, reserpine, metoclopramide
("cogwheel ridigitidy of the ARM")

97

these drugs cause seizures

isoniazid (b6 deficiency), bupropion, imipenem/cilastatin, tramadol, enflurane
(when i have a seizure I BITE my tongue)

98

these drugs cause tardive dyskinesia

antipsychotics, metoclopramide

99

these drugs cause diabetes insipidus

Li, demeclocycline

100

these drugs cause fanconi anemia

tenofovir, ifosfamide

101

these drugs cause hemorrhagic cystitis

cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide

102

these drugs cause SIADH

carbamazepine, cyclophosphamide, SSRIs
("Can't Concentrate Serum Sodium")

103

these drugs cause pulmonary fribrosis

methotrexate,nitrofurantoin, carmustine, bleomycin, busulfan, amiodarone
("My Nose Cannot Breathe Bad Air")

104

these drugs cause disulfiram-like reaction

metronidazole, certain cephalosporins, griseofulvin, procarbazine, 1st generation sulfonylureas

105

these drugs cause nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity

aminoglycosides, vancomycin, loop diuretics, cisplatin (cisplatin toxicity may respond to amifostine)

106

P450 inducers

chronic alcohol, St. John's wort, phenytoin, phenobarbital, nevirapine, rifampin, griseofulvin, carbamazepine
("chronic alcoholics Steal Phen-Phen and Never Refuse Greasy Carbs")

107

P450 substrates

anti-epileptics, theophylline, warfarin, OCPs

108

P450 inhibitors

acute alcohol, ritonavir, amiodarone, cimetidine/ciprofloxacin, ketoconazole, sulfonamides, INH, graprefruit juice, quinidine, macrolides (except azithromycin)
("AAA RACKS IN GQ Magazine")

109

these are sulfa drugs

sulfonamide antibx, sulfasalazine, probenecid, furosemide, acetazolamide, celcoxib, thiazides, sulfonylureas

110

-navir

protease inhibitor

111

-ovir

DNA polymerase inhibitor

112

-azine

typical antipsychotic

113

-etine

SSRI

114

-ipramine, -triptyline

TCA

115

-triptan

5HT 1b/1d agonist

116

-curium, -curonium

non-depolarizing paralytic

117

-stigmine

AChE inhibitor

118

-zosin

alpha 1 blocker

119

-afil

PDE-5 inhibitor

120

-dipine

dihydropyridine CCB

121

-xaban

direct factor Xa inhibitors

122

-dronate

bisphosphonate

123

-glitazone

PPAR-gamma activator

124

-prost

prostaglandin analog

125

-tidine

H2 blocker

126

-tropin

pituitary hormone

127

-ximab

chimeric mAb

128

-zumab

humanized mAb

129

effect of nore on CO, BP, HR and SVR

increase BP, SVR (main effect for both)
unchanged CO
decreased HR (reflex)

130

effect of epi on CO, BP, HR, and SVR

increase CO, BP, HR
Decreased SVR

131

effect of isoproteronol on CO, BP, HR, and SVR

significantly increases CO, HR (reflex)
decreases BP (beta 2), SVR (beta 2)

132

these drugs cause acute cholestatic hepatitis and jaundice

erythromycin

133

P450 effect: chronic alcohol, st. john's wort

stimulators

134

P450 effect: acute alcohol abuse, ritonavir

inhibitors

135

P450 effect: amiodarone, cimetidine

inhibitors

136

P450 effect: ciprofloxacin, ketoconazole

inhibitors

137

P450 effect: phenytoin, phenobarbital

stimulators

138

P450 effect: sulfonamides, INH

inhibitors

139

P450 effect: nevirapine, rifampin

stimulators

140

P450 effect: graprefuri juice, quinidine

inhibitors

141

P450 effect: macrolides

inhibitors (except azithromycin)

142

P450 effect: griseofulvin, carbamazepine

stimulators