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Flashcards in Endocrine disorders Deck (64)
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1

2 Basic problems for endocrine disorders

hyperfunction
hypofunction

2

Hyperfunction

increase in hormone secretion/action

3

Hypofunction

decrease or no hormone secretion or action

4

Hypofunction etiology

-dietary deficiency
-metabolic defect
-no trophic stimulation cause atrophy
-receptor defects (distorted or damaged shape)
-suppresive therapy (surgery/Tx for hypersecretion)
-immune disorders (anitbodies bind to receptor sites)

5

Hyperfunction etiology

-excessive trophic stimulation
-defect in negative feedback loop leads to no suppression
-Secretory tumor ( tumor cells will be same so have same secretion)

6

ectopic tumor

located somewhere else ex. cell in lung that secretes hormone

7

non functioning tumor

destroys normal secretory cells that can lead to hypofunction

8

commonest endocrine disorder, affects approx

diabetes mellitus (2.5 mil)

9

diabetes mellitus has ______ or ________ insulin defects

absolute or relative

10

absolute insulin defects

no insulin produced

11

relative insulin defects

insulin produced not able to recognize

12

Diabetes mellitus is a complex disease that affects

protein metabolism, lipid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism

13

Diabetes melliuts has defective

insulin secretion or action which leads to widespread metabolic defects (proteins, carbohydrates & lipids)

14

Diabetes melliuts is ________ if uncontrolled

life threatening

15

Impact of diabetes

Cardivascular, occular, renal, nueroimplications
(these will develop approx 10 yrs, with better management takes longer to dev, with bad management happens sooner)

16

classification of diabetes has 2 types

-type 1
-type 2

17

Type 1 affects

10 % of individuals with diabetes

18

Type 2 affects

90% of individuals with diabetes

19

Type 1 is __________ insulin deficiency

absolute, destruction of cells that create insulin (beta cells)

20

Type 1a
Type 1b

1a (immune mediated 90-95%)
1b (idiopathic destruction of beta cells 5-10%)

21

Type 2 beta cells are

intact and it is relative insulin deficiency

22

Etiology of both type 1 and type 2

complex trait (polygenic + environmental)
enivormental ex. viral infection & obesity

23

Type 1 has

juvenile onset (early onset)

24

LADA

progressive form of type 1
latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

25

MHC genes

-majorhistocompatability complex code for cells to be able to identify as self to immune system

26

Type 1 etiology (genes) & others

-MHC genes on chromosome 6 (40%)
-Insulin gene on chromosome 11 (10%) -function division of beta cells
- T cell hypersensitivity to Beta cell antigen
-familial risk (increase x10)

27

Type 2 is Mo

mature happens later in life

28

MODY

maturing onset diabetes in young -this is a growing condition

29

Type 2 etiology

-50 % due to glucokinase gene on chr 7

30

Glucokinase

adds phosphate to glucose catalyze by enzyme glucokinase. therefore glucose cannot stay in cell and moves out