assignment #1 - Infection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in assignment #1 - Infection Deck (22):
1

4 major portals of entry for infection

-penetration
-direct contact
-ingestion
-inhalation

2

Penetration as a portal of entry for infection

when body's barrier is broken (mucous membranes or skin) possibility of microorganisms entering ex. breaks causing injury such as burns, abrasions, surgery or catheterazation

3

Direct contact as a portal of entry for infection

A few pathogens are transmitted directly from infected tissue/secretions to exposed intact mucous membranes ex. STI's from intimate contact

4

Ingestion as a portal of entry for infection

entry of microorganims through oral cavity & gastrointestinal tract ex. many bacterial, viral & parasitic infections such as cholera, dysentry, food poising

5

Inhalation as a portal of entry for infection

Breathing in pathogenic material into respiratory tract

6

respiratory tract has many defenses for pathogens entering

-respiratory tree covered in mucus, gets swept away from lungs to mouth by beating motion of cilliated epithelial cells
-coughing
-respiratory secretions have antibodies & enzymes (can inactivate pathogen)

7

Stages of Disease course

-Incubation period
-prodromal stage
-acute stage
-convalescent stage
-resolution stage

8

Incubation period of disease course

-pathogens begin active replication though not producing any recognizable symptoms

9

prodromal stage of disease coure

-first symptoms appear

10

acute stage of disease course

host experiences maximum impact

11

convalescent period of disease course

infection contained --progressive elimination of pathogen

12

resolution stage of disease course

-total elimination of pathogen
-no residual signs or symptoms of disease

13

subclinical/subacute illness goes through disease process from infection to resolution without

clinically apparent symptoms

14

Local manifestations of infection

-diarrhea
-rash
-convulsions
-hemmorhage
-pneumonia

15

systemic manifestations of infection

-fever
-myalgia (pain in muscles)
-headache
-lethargy

16

Antibacterial drugs

-antibiotics, cause irreversible & deadly damage to the bacteria pathogen

17

Four basic mechanisms of antibiotic actions are

-interference with specific step in bacterial cell wall synthesis
-inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis
-interruption of nucleic acid synthesis
-interference with normal metabolism

18

3 primary laboratory techniques for definitive diagnosis

-culture
-serology
-DNA & RNA sequencing

19

Culture

-growing of microorganism's outside of the body
-specimen grows on agar plate till microorganism's grow till detectable

20

Serology

-identity of infectious agents by measuring serum antibodies in diseased host
-tentative diagnosis can be made if antibody level (antibody titre) rises during acute phase of disease & falls during convalescent period
-not as accurate as culture

21

DNA & RNA sequencing

-identifying infectious agents through detection of DNA or RNA sequences that are unique to a single agent

22

Antiviral drugs

-mainly target the viral RNA or DNA of pathogens. Their aim is to inhibit replication of the virus or to inhibit viral enzyme activity (microbe =viruses)