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Flashcards in Siezures Deck (17):
1

what are seizures

uncontrolled neuronal activity causing altered behavior & movements

2

seizures are a _______ not a disease

symptom

3

what is epilepsy

RECCURENT unprovoked seizures (chronic)

4

Etiology of seizure primary and secondary

Unprovoked (primary):
-idiopathic (approx 2/3), possible genetic component

Provoked (secondary):-precipitated by an underlying cause
-CNS insult (in brain)
-Febrile (especially in kids, fever triggers)
-metabolic: -hypoglycemia, hypoxia, electrolyte imbalance (disrupts membrane potential can trigger seizures)

5

Classification of Siezures

1 Focal seizures
2 generalized siezures

6

focal seizures (sometimes called partial seizures)

-origin in 1 hemisphere -- few neurons
-2 subgroups: involve loss of consciousness (complex partial), no loss of consciousness (simple partial)

7

generalized siezures

-origin in both hemispheres
-several subtypes

8

2 subgroups of focal siezures

complex partial - involve loss of consciousness
simple partial -no loss of consciousness

9

Patho of seizures

-epileptogenic focus in cerebral cortex & hippocampus triggered
-increased discharge (amplitude & frequency) --- spreads to adjoining areas
-normal inhibition overwhelmed causing abnormal movement & behavior
-discharge ultimately controlled
-before seizure ends: intermittent contraction-relaxation phase
-CNS depressed following intermittent contraction relaxation phase

10

post ictal phase

after seizure

11

status epileptics

prolonged seizure, damage only occurs if seizure is prolonged

12

diagnosing seizures

-history
-neuro exam
-labs, scans, EEG (electorencophaleogram -test used to detect abnormalities related to electrical activity of the brain)

13

treatment of siezures

-during seizure: protect form injury
-stat after: pressure brain function
-later: -underlying cause
-anticonvulsant drugs (taken to prevent)
-sx (if surgically correctable cause)
-

14

how does the patho of seizures start

-epileptogenic focus in cerebral cortex & hippocampus triggered

15

when there is a seizure brain activity increase and then requires more

when brain activity increases requires more ATP increase in 02 and glucose required if not available inadequate perfusion to brain causing hypoxia and lactic acidosis causing brain damage

16

brain is dependent exclusively on

02 and glucose, brain does not to anaerobic metabolism

17

how is lactic acid causing metabolic acidosis in brain

- lactic acid from skeletal muscles (d/t not being oxygenated) enters circulation causing lactic acidosis