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Flashcards in Anemia Deck (42)
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1

anemia is _______ blood disorder

most common

2

anemia is the deficiency of

RBCS and hemoglobin

3

deficiency of RBCs and hemoglobin due to

-problems with erythropoiesis
-increased/excessive loss of RBCS (bleeding)
-increased hemolysis: breakdown prior to usual time (aprox 120 days)

4

Patho of anemia

-abnormal number, structure or function of RBC
-decrease in oxygen carrying capacity
-hypoxia

5

what is the primary manifestation that underpins all other complications of anemia

Hypoxia

6

Iron deficiency anemia

-need iron to make hemoglobin
-inadequate intake or increased loss of iron
-iron binds to oxygen molecules for transport
-impaired hemoglobin synthesis

7

what are the manifestations of severe anemia

-chronic exhaustion
-excessive palpitations
-profound weakness & dizziness
-headache (brain will be hypoxic too)
-sensitivity to cold (no 02, not able to carry out anaerobic metabolism, not able to carry heat)

8

you need iron to make

hemoglobin

9

Treatment of iron deficient anemia

-treat underlying cause
-iron supplements, Fe p.o. for 4-6m

10

iron deficiency usually because not taking enough

dietary iron

11

test to find out if iron deficient

measure iron concentration (NOT A CBC)

12

Vitamin b12 & Folic acid deficiency

-responsible for DNA synthesis, invovled in cell division, DNA replication
-abnormal DNA synthesis & cell maturation -- imparied RBC, WBC & platelets (cells will not mature)

13

Treatment of Vitamin b12 & folic acid deficiency

-vit B12 & folic acid (supplemental) (dietary deficiency)
-could have a deficiency in one or both

14

Pernicious anemia

-damaged gastric mucosa
-no intrinsic factor (intrinsic factor produced in mucosa of stomach)
-poor B12 absorption (RBC PRODUCTION IS IMPAIRED)

15

pernicious anemia is often in people who have had

gastric surgery

16

Treatment of pernicious anemia

-high dose of vit b12 p.o. (if high dose, some of b12 absorbed without intrinisic factor needed)
-IM b12 injection (only if neuro symptoms present) (IM does through without passing through stomach)

17

Aplastic anemia (no cell anemia)

-marrow (stem cell failure) -- defects exists in marrow
-all blood cells affected

18

Aplastic anemia Treatment

-Transfusions
-immune suppression
-marrow transplant (get rid of everything in marrow, donor marrow complex severely compromised when eradicating)

19

Aplastic anemia is from

-1/3 autoimmune, radiation, toxic chemicals
-2/3 are idiopathic

20

Hemolytic anemia

-premature or excessive hemolysis (rupture or destruction of RBCS)
-accquired type (eg. autoimmunity, drugs) targeting erythrocytes
-genetic type (eg. in thalassemia)

21

Thanlassemia

genetic type of hemolytic anemia
-defective synthesis of hemoglobin putting together doesn't happen normally

22

Manifestations of hemolytic anemia

same as general plus:
-Jaundice: excessive bilirubin-bilirubin gets in blood stream, liver can't keep up to excrete
-Splenomegaly: spleen expands to meed demand of excretion, increase # of cells there also causes it to enlarge
-Hepatomegaly: demand, size and lots of material causes enarlged liver

23

Treatment of hemolytic anemia

-underlying cause
-02 for nypoxia
-transfusion
-steroids (to halt hemolysis) (cant use long term, can cause damaging side effects)
-Renal function (precipitation in renal tubule d/t hemolysis)
-Spleenectomy (if too many rbcs being removed, some fxs can be taken over by liver -individual can fx without spleen, have to know hemolysis is happening in spleen)

24

Acute Hemorrhagic Anemia

rapid loss of blood (RBCS, hemoglobin, Fe) whole blood
-severity based on site, rate & volume lost

25

Chronic Hemorrhagic Anemia

gradual ongoing blood loss (less easily detected and persists for longer time

26

Major causes of chronic hemorrhagic anemia

-prolonged or heavy menses
-Bleeding peptic ulcers: bleeding happening in upper GI tract, occult blood will not know there is blood in stool)
-Cancerous lesions of GI tract
-hemorrhoids (frank blood)

27

Frank blood is

blood from hemorrhoids can see in the toilet bowl

28

Treatment of Hemorrhagic anemia

-eliminate cause

29

Sickle cell anemia is

genetic, homozygus recessive

30

what is homozygus recessive

two matched defective alleles
-matched means they have to be coding for the same thing
Both parents have to be carrier