Bio 252- atherosclerosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio 252- atherosclerosis Deck (23):
1

Hyperlipidemia

excessive lipid concentration in blood

2

all Lipids?

triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids

3

Non modifiable risk factors for coronary heart diease

-men over 45
-postmenopausal women
-family history of cardiovascular disease
-men under 55
-women under 65

4

Modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease

-hypertension
-smoking
-dyslipidemia
-Low LDL
-elevated LDL
-diabetes mellitus
-obesity
-left ventricular hypertrophy

5

Apoprotiens are?

Lipid carriers (transport lipids)

6

Hyperlipdemia in what percent of canadians?

40%

7

lipid + apoprotien=

lipoprotien

8

Proteins are more ____ than liquids

dense

9

lipoprotiens are differentiated from each other via

individual density

10

lipids are

insoluble

11

Lipoprotiens vary in density

VLDL, LDL, HDL
lowest to highest density
Chylomicrons lowest density lower than VLDL

12

Chylomicrons

Lipid (fat) absorbed into blood (or lymph) through small intestine

13

sclerosis=

hardening

14

layers of artery & vein

lumen, tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa

15

Athersclerosis

(lesion that develops in wall of artery)
-hardening of blood vessel wall
-fibrofatty (Fibers & lipids) lesion (atheroma) in intima of larger arteries

16

what does asthersclerosis cause

-impedes blood flow--impedes perfusion --ischemia--MI/stroke/PVD

17

32% of all deaths are complications of

MI/stroke/PVD from atherosclerosis

18

ischemia

restriction/reduction of blood supply/ inadequate perfustion to a local area d/t obstruction in a blood vessel

19

Infarction

necrosis of tissue d/t ischemia

20

3 lesions/ 3 stages of atherosclerosis

1. Fatty streak: -change within intima
-macrophages -foam cells (as soon as macrophages engulf lipids become foam cells)
-smooth muscle cells
2. Fiborous atheromatous plaque: -clinically significant lesion w necrotic core
-swelling lesion made of fibrous tissue
3. Complicated lesion: -unstable
-hemmorhage into plaque, bllod form lumen moving into plaque
-risk of part of plaque dislodging
-

21

pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

-primarily occurs in intima of artery, THEN swells into lumen(area of least resistance) --compromises lumen
-insidious origin: subltle endothelial injury from risk factors cause inflm(CRP will be elevated d/t inflm)
-monocytes & other inflm cells bind to endothelium :adhesion factors aid ( selectins & integrins)
-lipids enter intima (free floating shouldnt be there)
-monocytes enter intima, become macrophages: engluf lipids, become foam cells
-relase free radicals via oxidization of lipids(causes additional damage)
-release growth factors which aid in proliferation of smooth muscle cells in layer below intima (tunica media)
-atheroma continues to swell into lumen
-creates a necrotic core(full of dead lipids ect)
-hemorrhaging into plaque may cause embolus (unstable)

22

Sites where severe atherosclerosis appears frequently

1. Abdominal aorta & iliac arteries
2. proximal coronary arteries
3. Thoracic aorta, femoral & popliteal arteries
4. Internal carotid arteries
5. vertebral , basilar & middle cerebral arteries

23

what lipid do you want in minimal quantities

LDL, lousy lipid, cholesterol