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Flashcards in Lymphoma Deck (20)
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Lymphomas are

malignancies (cancers) that arise in lymphoid tissues (tissues satiated with leukocytes)
ex of tissues - lymph nodes, spleen, thymus & tonsils


Hodgkins Lymphoma

group of cancers characterized by Reed-Sternberg cells. These cells begin malignancy in a single lymph node. Than spread to continuous lymph nodes.


Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

Heterogeneous lymphatic cancers, meaning that it may spread to various tissues (including bone marrow) where it may disperse in numerous directions.


Manifestations of both Lymphomas relate to

uncontrolled lymph node & lymphoid tissue growth, bone marrow involvement.


Symptoms of both lymphomas include

fever, fatigue & weight loss which relate to rapid growth of abnormal lymphoid cells & tissue


which lymphoma has the Reed-Sternberg cells

Hodgkins Lymphoma


Hodgkins lymphoma etiology

largely idiopathic (unkown), proposed causes exposure to carcinogens & viruses as well as genetic


Risks for Hodgkins Lymphoma:

-people w history of infectious mononucleosis
-if some blood related (in immediate family) has history of HL
-receiving long term immunosuppresive therapy
-working w some wood products
-exposure to herbicide agent orange


Patho of Hodgkins lymphoma:

-unicentric (single center of origin)
-Initiates in single lymph node, typically above diaphragm
-spreads by contiguous extension (sequence extension) along lymphatic system
-Malignant cell of HL is Reed-sternberg cell


what is the essential diagnostic criteria for Hodgkins lymphoma

Reed-Sternberg cells


Manifestations of hodgkins Lymphoma

-painless enlargement of a single node or group of nodes, initial node usually above diaphragm
-decline in cellular immunity, more susceptible to viral infections (herpes zoster, fungal, protozoal)
-localized symptoms from compression of organs affected by tumor growth. Ex. cough & fluids in pleural cavity d/t tumor growth near lungs.
-B symptoms: systemic fever, chills, night sweats and weight loss of 10% or more


Medical management of Hodgkins lymphoma

early stage (1&2) short course of chemotherapy, followed by radiation (general tx), for some only radiation
advanced stage (3&4& all B stages) combination chemotherpay with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and darcrabazine


general goal of Hodgkins lymphoma treatment is to _______ patient because

cure patient because survival rate is 80%


treatment of Hodgkins lymphoma is determined by

stage of the disease


Etiology of Non-Hodgkins lymphoma

primarily idiopathic


Risks for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma

-people with immunodeficiencies & autoimmune disorders
-undergoing tx to cancer, have/had organ transplants, have viral infection such as epstein-barr virus or HIV
-exposure to pesticides, solvents &dyes (ex. Agent orange)
-age increase predisposition, as each progressive decade of life has increased causes of NHL


patho for Non-hodgkins lymphoma

-can originate in any lymphoid tissue, most commonly in lymph nodes
-from there can spread throughout body into other tissues ex. liver, spleen, & bone marrow
-type of NHL determines path, ex. B cell lymphomas reproducing in B cell areas, T cell lymphomas multiplying in T cell areas
-patho & classification can also be determined by cell type affected, level of maturation & anatomic sites


Mnfts of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

-swollen or enlarged lymph nodes
-less aggressive forms swollen lymph nodes can come and go
-symptoms may be nearly absent till later stages
-later stages bone marrow commonly involved
-decline in humoural immunity (T cells & B cells)
-Lymphomatous masses may compromise organ functioning
-B symptoms: persistent fever, drenching night sweats, and unintentional weight loss greater than 10%


what is the most common mnfts of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

swollen or enlarged lymph nodes


Medical management of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

-depends on type
-if form is mild & localized radiation alone may combat disease
-aggressive forms tend to require combination chemotherapeutic agents & radiation
-low grade lymphomas approved to utilize interferon(antivirals that disrupt replication)