Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (77):
1

Functions of Endocrine System

water balance
uterine, contraction and milk release
growth, metabolism and tissue maturation
ion regulation
heart rate and blood pressure regulation
blood glucose control
immune system regulation
reproductive functions control

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a mediator molecule that is released in one part of the body but regulates activity of cells in other parts of the body

enters interstitial fluid and then the blooodstream

hormone

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mediator molecules

nervous: neurotransmitter
endocrine: hormone

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site of mediator action

nervous: close to site
endocrine: far

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types of target cells

nervous: muscles
endocrine: all body cells

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time to onset of action

nervous: milliseconds
endocrine: seconds to hours to days

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duration of action

nervous: brief
endocrine: longer

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other name of pituitary gland

hypophysis

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other name of posterior pituitary gland

neurohypophysis

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does not synthesize hormones but only stores and release 2 hormones

posterior pituitary gland

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hormones stored by PPG

ADH
Oxytocin

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target organ and function of ADH

kidney
increases water reabsorption

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other name of ADH

vasopressin

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target organ and function ocytocin

uterus (muscle layer-myometrium)
mammary glands

increases uterine contraction
increases milk "let down" from mammary glands

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oxytocin is used only for a few months and replaced by

prolactin

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stalk connecting pituitary to hypothalamus

infundibulum

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other name of anterior pituitary gland

adenohypophysis

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composed of epithelial tissues
secretes hormones that regulate a wide range of bodily activities from growth to reproduction

anterior pituitary gland

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hormones synthesized by APG

GH
TSH
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
MSH
LH or ICSH
FSH
Prolactin

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cells that produce GH

somatotrophs

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cells that produce TSH

thyrotrophs

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cells that produce adrenocorticotropic hormone

corticotrophs

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cells that produce LH and FSH

Gonadotrophs

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cells that produce Prolactin

lactotrophs

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target organ and response of GH

most tissues

increases protein synthesis, breakdown of lipis and release of fatty acids from cells
increase blood glucose level

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target organ and response of TSH

thyroid gland

increases thyroid hormone secretion (T3,T4)

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target organ and response of Adrenocorticotropic hormone

adrenal cortex

increases secretion of glucocorticoid hormones such as cortisol
increases skin pigmentation at high concentrations

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target organ and response of melanocyte-stimulating hormone

melanocytes in skin

increases production of melanocytes to make the skin darker in color

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target organ and response of LH

ovary
testes

promotes ovulation and progesterone production in ovary

testosterone synthesis and support for sperm cell production in testis

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target organ and response of FSH

follicles in ovary
seminiferous tubules in males

promotes follicle maturation and estrogen secretion in ovary

sperm cell production in testis

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target organ and response of Prolactin

ovary and mammary glands

testis

stimulates milk production and prolongs progesterone secretion following ovulation and during pregnancy in women

increases sensitivity to LH in males

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hormones secreted by thyroid gland

thyroid hormone (thyroxine/triiodotheyronine)
calcitonin

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target organ and response of thyroid hormone

most cells of the body

Increases metabolic rates, essential for normal process growth and maturation

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target organ and response of calcitonin

priamarily bone

decreases rate of bone break down
prevents large increase in blood calcium levels following a meal

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4 small glands at posterior portion of thyroid glands

parathyroid glands

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hormone secreted by parathyroid glands

parathormone

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other names of parathormone

paracalcitonin
parathyroid hormone

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target organ and response of parathormone

bone

increases rate of bone breakdown by osteoclast

kidney

increases vitamin D synthesis, essential for maintenance of normal blood calcium levels

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both endocrine and exocrine functions

pancreas

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endocrine function of pancreas

digestive system

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hormones secreted by pancreas

insulin
glucagon

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target organ and response of insulin

liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue

Increases uptake and use of glucose and amino acids

liver

Increases breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose into the circulatory system

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cluster of endocrine cells in pancreas

Islets of langerhans

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other name of Adrenal glands

suprarenal glands

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superior to kidneys

adrenal glands

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inner layer; modified extension of nerve fibers from sympathetic nervous system

adrenal medulla

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outer layer

adrenal cortex

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hormones secreted by adrenal medulla

epinephrine and some norepinephrine

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target organ and response of epinephrine and norepinephrine

heart, blood vessels, liver, fat cells

increases cardiac output
increases bloodflow to skeletal muscles and heart
increases release of glucose and fatty acids into blood

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hormones secreted by adrenal cortex

mineralocorticoids
glucocorticoids
adrenal androgens

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target organ and response of mineralocorticoids

kidney

increases rate of sodium transport into body
increases rate of potassium excretion
secondarily favor water retention
aldosterone (stimulate posterior pituitary gland to release ADH)

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target organ and response of glucocorticoids

most tissues (liver, fat, skeletal muscle, immune tissues)

increase fat (glycolysis) and protein breakdown
increase glucose synthesis from amino acids (gluconeogenesis)
increases blood nutrient levels
inhibit inflammation and immune response

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target organ and response of adrenal androgens

most tissues

insignificant in males
increase female sexual drive, pubic hair, axillary hair growth; converted to estrogen

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3 parts of adrenal cortex

zona glomerulosa
zona fasciculata
zona reticularis

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zona glomerulosa

mineralocorticoids

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zona fasciculata

glucocorticoids

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zona reticularis

androgens

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most abundant mineralocorticoids

aldosterone

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most abundant glucocorticoids

cortisol

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hormones secreted by ovary

estrogen and progesterone

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target organ and response of estrogen and progesterone

most tissues

and in uterus and mammary gland development and function, external genitalia structure, secondary sexual characteristics, sexual behavior and menstrual cycle

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hormones secreted by testes

testosteron

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target organ and response of testes

most tissues

aids in cell production, maintenance of functional reproductive organs, secondary sexual characteristics and sexual behavior

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produces testosterone

leydig cells

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hormones secreted by thymus gland; aids in maturation of T-cells

thymosin

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target organ and response of thymosin

immune tissues

promotes immune system development and function

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b cells mature in

bones

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hormones produced by pineal body

melatonin

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target organ and response of melatonin

hypothalamus
inhibits secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, thereby inhibiting reproduction

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urine production

diuresis

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follicular cells

t3 and t4

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parafollicular cells

calcitonin

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excessive production of GH

giantism

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low production of GH

dwarfism

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extended width of bone

acromegaly

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produces glucagon; few

alpha cells

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produces insulin; majority

beta cells