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Flashcards in Blood Deck (66):
1

Function of Blood

Transportation
Regulation
Protection

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Composition of Blood

55% Plasma
45% Blood Cells

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fluid portion of blood
watery, liquid matrix that contains dissolved substances

Plasma

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Composition of Plasma

91-91.5% water
1.5-2% other solutes
7% proteins

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proteins

albumin (produced in liver)
globulin
fibrinogen

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function of albumin

maintain oncotic osmotic pressure

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edema

plasma accumulating in extravascular/ interstitial space

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ascites

accumulation of excess fluid in peritoneal cavity

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globulin that binds and transports iron

transferrin

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other examples of globulin

IGg
IGm

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Fibrinogen is converted into

fibrin

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function of fibrin

clotting

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final product of ammonia (toxic)

urea

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formed elements of blood

Blood Cells

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Composition of Blood cells

95% RBC
5% WBC and Platelets

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shape of RBC

biconcave, disc-shaped

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diameter of RBC

7-8 um

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description of RBC

has no nucleus
strong flexible membrane
contains hemoglobin
transports oxygen

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oxygen-carrying protein

hemoglobin

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1 hemoglobin=

4 irons, 4 O molecules

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1 RBC =

4 million hemoglobin molecules

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increase in RBC

Erythrocytosis

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decrease in RBC

Erythropenia

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normal RBC count

M- 5.4 million/microliter
F-4.8 million/microliter

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lifespan of RBC

120 days

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a hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates Red Bone marrow to produce RBC

erythropoietin

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percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBC

Hematocrit

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normal vol.

M - 40-46% (ave. 47%)
F - 38-46% (ave. 42%)

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storage form of iron in liver

Ferritin

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concentrates bile

Gallbladder

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emulsifies fats

bile

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green pigment

Biliverdin

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yellow pigment

bilirubin

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reason for yellow urine

urobilin

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reason of brown stool

stercobilin

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Classifications of Leukocytes

Granular Leukocytes (Red bone marrow)
Agranular Leukocytes (Lymphatic Tissue)

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NV = 60 - 70%
most common WBC
Small cytoplasmic granules that stain with acidic and basic dyes
Nuclei commonly lobed (2-4)
remain in blood for short time (10-12 hrs)
move to other tissues

Neutrophils

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Function of Neutrophils

Phagocytize microorganisms and other foreign substances

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neutrophils respond to

acute bacterial infection

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NV = 2-4%
granules stain bright red with eosin - acid stain
2- lobed nucleus

Eosinophils

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Function of Eosinophils

release chemicals that reduce inflammation (allergy)
produce chemicals involved with destruction of certain worm parasites

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NV = 0.5 - 1 %
large cytoplasmic granules that stain blue or purple with basic dyes

Basophils

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Function of basophils

liberate histamine, serotonin and other chemicals that promote inflammation
release heparin which prevent formation of clot

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NV = 20-25%
smallest WBC
cytoplasm only consists of thin, sometimes imperceptible ring around nucleus

Lymphocytes

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types of lymphocytes

B cells
T cells
Natural Killer cells

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Lymphocytes activate during

viral infection

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function of lymphocytes

produce antibodies and other chemicals that destroy microorganisms

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develop into plasma cells which secrete antibodies

B cells

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attack invading viruses, cancer cells and transplanted tissue cells

T cells

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attack invading and wide varieties of infectious microbes

Natural Killer cells

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NV = 3-8%
largest WBC
cytoplasm is blue-gray and has foamy appearance
nucleus is kidney-shaped or horse-shoe shaped

Monocytes

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Function of monocytes

phagocytosis (after transformed into fixed of wandering macrophages)

phagocytize bacteia, dead cells, cell fragments and other debris within tissue

break down phagocytized cell and present to lymphocytes resulting in activation of lymphocytes

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monocytes respond to

chronic phase of infection

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other name of platelets

thrombocytes

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fragments enclosed by a piece of plasma mebrane
NV 150,000-400,000 uL

platelets

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function of platelets

helps stop blood loss by damaged blood vessels by forming platelet plug

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other name of blood clotting

coagulation

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network of threadlike protein fibers called fibrin that traps blood cells, platelets and fluid

clot

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system used to categorize human blood

ABO blood group

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located on surface of RBC

Antigen

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located on plasma

Antibody

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rupture of RBCs and release of hemoglobin into plasma

hemolysis

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agglutination

clumping

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other name of HDN (Hemolytic disease of newborn)

Erythroblastosis Fetalis

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vaccine for HDN

RhoGam

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normal blood pH

7.35-7.45
slightly alkaline