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Flashcards in Anatomy Lab Endterm Deck (168):
1

major function of cardiovascular system

transportation

2

structure that surrounds heart anteriorly

sternum and ribs from second intercostal space to fifth intercostal space

3

structure that surrounds heart posteriorly

thoracic vertebrae from fifth to eighth vertebrae

4

structure that surrounds heart laterally

lungs (right and left)

5

structure that surrounds heart superiorly

bounded by second rib

6

structure that surrounds heart inferiorly

diaphragm

7

inner lining of heart

endocardium

8

muscle; helps in contraction of heart

myocardium

9

outer surface of heart

epicardium

10

hollow part of heart where blood enters

chambers

11

oxygenated blood vessel

arteries

12

deoxygenated blood vessel

veins

13

oxygenated heart blood vessel

pulmonary veins

14

deoxygenated heart blood vessel

pulmonary artery

15

contraction of ventricles

systole

16

relaxation of ventricles

diastole

17

feed heart with oxygenated blood

coronary arteries

18

thicker myocardium

left ventricle

19

instrument for measuring blood pressure

sphygmomanometer

20

pattern of electrical impulses that are generated by the heart

EKG or Electrocardiogram
Electrocardiography or ECG

21

record of the movement of electrical activity through the upper heart chambers when they contract

P wave

22

record of electrical impulses through the lower heart chamber (ventricles when they contract)

QRS Complex

23

a straight level line between the QRS Complex and T wave elevated or lowered ST segment may mean the heart muscle is damaged or not receiving enough blood

ST segment

24

corresponds to the period when the lower heart chambers are relaxing and preparing for the next muscle contraction

T Wave

25

Electrical Conduction System of Heart

SA node
AV node
Bundle of HIs
Right and Left Bundle Branches
Purkinje Fibers

26

natural pacemaker of heart

SA Node

27

delays the ventricular contraction

AV node

28

sound after systole before diastole

Korotkoff sound

29

sound produced by the closure of AV valves

louder and longer

lower pitch

lub

30

produced by the closure of the SA valves

short and sharp

higher pitch

dub

31

gives the cardiac cycle its systematic nature of contraction

Electrical conduction system

32

alternating surges of pressure in an artery that occur with each beat of the left ventricle

pulse

33

normal pulse rate

70-76 beats per minute
60-80 beats per minute

34

pulse rate equals

heart rate

35

Superficial pulse points

Common Carotid
Temporal Artery
Facial Artery
Brachial Artery
Radial Artery
Femoral Artery
Popliteal Artery
Posterior Tibial Artery
Dorsalis Pedis Artery

36

pressure the blood exerts against the inner blood vessel wall

blood pressure

37

blood vessel where blood pressure is highest

arteries

38

unit of blood pressure

mmHg

39

numerator

systolic BP

40

denominator

diastolic BP

41

Factors Affecting BP

blood volume
strength of heart contraction
blood viscosity/ peripheral resistance
cardiac rate

42

higher blood volume

higher BP

43

the stronger each contraction is

the more blood it pumps into arteries

44

the lower viscosity

the lower BP

45

high BP

causes damage to blood vessels

46

low BP

cease in blood flow

47

Artery

no valves
has higher influence in BP
thicker walls
delivers blood away from heart
carries oxygenated blood
transports blood with high pressure
narrow lumen

48

Vein

presence of valves
thinner walls
delivers blood to heart
carries unoxygenated blood
absence of pulse
wider lumen

49

smallest structural units of the Respiratory System
site of actual gas exchange

alveoli

50

organ of olfaction

nose

51

common pathway of air and food

pharynx

52

connects the pharynx with the trachea

larynx

53

windpipe

trachea

54

terminal potion of the trachea that divides into left and right airways

bronchi

55

smaller airways or branches

bronchioles

56

respiratory centers

pons
medulla oblongata

57

serous membrane surrounding the lungs

pleura

58

Adam's apple

thyroid cartilage

59

inflammation of the bronchi accompanied by mucus production and impaired breathing

bronchitis

60

destruction of the walls of the alveoli

emphysema

61

Replacement of lung tissue with fibrous connective tissue and caused by excessive exposure to asbestos, silica or coal dust

pulmonary fibrosis

62

common in premature infants associated with inadequate amount of surfactant and the lungs tend to collapse

respiratory distress syndrom

63

any infection of the lungs

pneumonia

64

bacterial respiratory infection characterized by severe coughing and clear tenacious mucus

whooping cough

65

shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing and viscous mucus

asthma

66

progressive disorder characterized by obstruction of air flow resulting in decreased inspiration and expiration capabilities of the lungs

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

67

bacterial respiratory infection characterized by formation of small lumplike lesions called tubercles in the lungs

tuberculosis

68

presence of blood in pleura

hemothorax

69

Secretions of salivary glands

salivary amylase
salivary lipase
no secretions for protein

70

salivary amylase

digest starch to maltose

71

salivary lipase

breakdown of fats to glycerol and fatty acids

72

secretions of stomach

none for carbs
none for fats
pepsin

73

pepsin

controls acidity of stomach

74

secretions of liver

none for carbs
bile
non for protein

75

secretions of pancreas

pancreatic amylase
pancreatic lipase
trypsin

76

secretions of small intestine

disaccharidases
lipase
peptidase

77

products of digestion

water
monosaccharides
amino acids
positive ions
fatty acids
vitamin b 12
calcium ions
vitamin ADEK
negative ions
Vitamin C

78

water

osmosis

79

monosaccharides

co-transport

80

amino acids

active transport

81

positive ions

active transport

82

fatty acids

simple diffusion

83

vitamin b12

water soluble

84

calcium ions

active transport with aid of Vitamin D

85

Vitamin ADEK

fat soluble

86

negative ions

positive transport

87

vitamin C

water soluble

88

storage of urin

urinary bladder

89

duct where urine passes through from kidney to bladder

ureter

90

passageway of urine between bladder to external part of body

urethra

91

bean-shaped organ; excretory organ, purifies blood and removes waste

kidney

92

outer portion of kidney between renal capsule and renal medulla

renal cortex

93

collects urine from minor calyx

major calyx

94

larger funnel formed by union of calyxes

renal pelvis

95

collects urine from one of the renal papilla

manior calyx

96

carries urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder

ureter

97

expansion of closed end of renal tubule

bowman's capsule/glomerular capsule

98

cluster or network of capillaries around the end of kidney tubule

glomerulus

99

any of the long winding tubule of the kidney in which urine is formed

urinary tubules

100

used to evaluate physical characteristics of urine

detects presence of protein, glucose, ketone bodies and produce of incomplete fat metabolism, sediments, cast, crystals

urinalysis

101

purposes of urinalysis

detect metabolic disease unrelated to renal disease
to detect substance used

102

normal color of urine

yellow

103

odor of urine

pungent or aromatic

104

range of pH

4.5-8

105

normal pH

7

106

too much or too low pH

kidney stone

107

pH more than normal/ basic urine

UTI
Metabolic and respiratory alkalosis

108

pH less than normal/ acidic urine

Ketonuria
Renal tuberculosis
Diarrhea
Dehydration

109

presence of protein in urine

proteinuria

110

diseases associated with proteinuria

DM (odor - fruity)
hypertension
hepatitis

111

presence of sugar in urine

glycosuria

112

disease associated with glycosuria

DM

113

presence of bilirubin in urine

problem in liver

114

presence of blood cells in urine

hematuria

115

disease associated with hematuria

bleeding in GUT (Genito urinary tract)

116

presence of cast in urine

renal disease

117

presence of crystals (calcium oxylate) in urine

hypercalcemia

118

specific gravity of urine

1.002 - 1.035

119

if specific gravity of urine is more than 1.035

hydration

120

if specific gravity of urine is less than 1.002

dehydration

121

main responsibility of male reproductive system

production of spermatozoa
production of male sex hormones

122

process of transferring sperm during sexual intercourse

in-vitro fertilization

123

primary hormones involved in the functioning of the male reproductive system

FSH
LH
testosterone

124

FSH and LH are produced in

pituitary gland

125

necessary for sperm production (spermatogenesis)

FSH

126

stimulates production of testosterone which is necessary to continue the process of spermatogenesis

LH

127

important in development of male characteristics including muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, bone mass and sex drive

testosterone

128

2 divisions of male reproductive system

primary sex organs
secondary sex organs

129

known as the gonads; commonly known as testes

primary sex organs

130

responsible for production of spermatozoa
production and secretion of male sex hormones

testes

131

hormones that lead to production of secondary sex organs

androgens

132

carry and transport the spermatozoa

secondary male sex organs

133

male organ for sexual intercourse

penis

134

3 parts of penis

root
body or shaft
glum

135

attaches to wall of abdomen

root

136

cone-shaped end of the penis

glum

137

head of penis

glans penis

138

glans is covered with a loose layer of skin

foreskin

139

opening of urethra

tip of glans penis

140

tube that transports semen and urine

urethra

141

loose pouch-like sac of the skin that hangs behind the penis

contains testicles/testes as well as many nerves and blood vessels

scrotum

142

function of scrotum

protective function
climate control system

143

for normal sperm development, temperature of testes must be

slightly cooler than body

144

testicles move closer to body

warm

145

testicles move farther away from body

cool temperature

146

transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation

vas deferens

147

formed by fusion of the vas deferens and seminal vesicles

empty into urethra

ejaculatory ducts

148

sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder

seminal vesicles

149

function of seminal vesicles

produce a sugar-rich fluid that provides sperm with a source of energy

helps sperms' motility

150

primary sex organs of the female reproductive system

small rounded organs suspended in the pelvic cavity by ligaments

ovaries

151

attaches the ovaries to the broad ligament

ovarian mesentery/mesovarium

152

support the ovaries

suspensory ligaments
ovarian ligaments

153

narrow tube with a ciliated lining

conducts a mature ovum from the area of the ovary toward the uterus

usual site of fertilization

uterine tube/fallopian tube/ oviduct

154

surround fallopian tube's margin at its ovarian end

fimbriae

155

signle muscular sac at the midline in the pelvic cavity

uterus

156

larger,rounded portion in which is located the main part of the uterine cavity

body of the uterus

157

narrow, inferior portion of the uterus

cervix

158

the portion of the peritoneum that forms the outer uterine wall

serous layer of the uterus

159

the muscular middle layer of the uterine wall

myometrium

160

inner layer of the uterine wall

endometrium

161

muscular canal that receives the male penis during sexual intercourse

functions as birth canal during delivery

exit of sloughed-off endometrium during menstruation

vagina

162

thin membrane that covers partially or entirely the opening of vagina

hymen

163

external genitals of female

vulva or pudendum

164

central space of vulva, into which the vagina and urethra open

vestibule

165

female glans, a small erectile structure in the anterior corner of the anterior corner of the vestibule

clitoris

166

a pair of thin, longitudinal folds, one on each side of the vestibule

labia minora

167

a pair of thick, longitudinal folds lateral to the labia minora

labia majora

168

fatty mound, covered with hair, over the pubic bone

mons pubis