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Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (86):
1

Anatomy of heart

apex base located in the thoracic cavity between the 2 pleural cavities

2

directed toward the left hip and rests on the diaphragm

apex

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larger, flat end at the posterosuperior aspect, directed towards the right shoulder where the great vessels emerge

base

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median partition formed by the heart, trachea, esophagus and associated structures

mediastinum

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Coverings of heart

pericardium

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double sac of serous membrane that encloses the heart

pericardium

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2 layers of pericardium

parietal pericardium visceral pericardium or epicardium

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outer fibrous layer that protects the heart and anchors it to the surrounding structures such as the diaphragm and sternum

parietal pericardium

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tightly hugs the external surface of the heart and is actually part of the heart wall

visceral pericardium

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other name of visceral pericardium

epicardium

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space between the parietal and visceral pericardia

pericardial cavity

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reduces friction between layers of serous pericardium

pericardial fluid

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3 layers of the heart wall

epicardium myocardium endocardium

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outer layer

epicardium

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middle layer consists of thick bundles of cardiac muscle layer that contracts

myocardium

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innermost layer thin glistening sheet of endothelium that lines the heart chambers

endocardium

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4 hollow chambers or cavities

atria ventricles

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located superiorly receiving chambers

atria

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separates 2 atria

interatrial septum

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located inferiorly thick-walled discharging chambers

ventricles

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separates 2 ventricles

interventricular septum

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great vessels

superior vena cava ingerior vena cava pulmonary trunk pulmonary veins aorta

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returns oxygen-poor blood from veins of the upper part of the body to right atrium

superior vena cava

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returns oxygen-poor blood from veins of lower part of body to right atrium

inferior vena cava

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splits into right and left pulmonary arteries carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs for oxygenation

pulmonary trunk

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carries oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium

pulmonary veins (4)

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where systemic arteries branch out to supply blood to body tissues

aorta

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circulation from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart

pulmonary circulation

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function of pulmonary circulation

carry blood to the lungs for gas exchange and then return it to the heart

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circulation from the left side of the heart through the body tissues and back to the hear

systemic circulation

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allows blood to flow in only 1 direction through the heart chambers

heart valves (4)

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heart valves

atrioventricular valves (AV valves) semilunar valves

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between atria and ventricles prevent backflow of blood back into atria when ventricles contract

atrioventricular valves

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AV valves

tricuspid valve bicuspid or mitral valve

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left AV valve

bicuspid valve

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right AV valve

tricuspid valve

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AV valves ______ during systole and ______ during diastole

close open

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guards the bases of the 2 large arteries leaving the ventricles

semilunar valves

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semilunar valves

pulmonary valve aortic valve

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prevent backflow of blood into R ventricle

pulmonary or pulmonic valve

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prevent backflow of blood into L ventricle

aortic valve

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semilunar valves ________ during systole and ______ during diastole

open close

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Conduction System of Heart

SA node AV node AV bundle/Bundle of His left and right Bundles Purkinje Fibers

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pacemaker of heart superior wall of R atrium produces AP at higher rate than other parts of heart

initiates impulses

SA node/ Sinoatrial node

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SA node produces

80-100 beats/ min

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Lower portion of right atrium AP spread slowly through it delays to allow atria to finish contracting

AV node/Atrioventricular node

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projects through the interventricular Septum then divides into 2 branches of conducting tissues called the R & L bundle brances

Bundle of His/ Atrioventricular bundle

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spread within muscles of ventricles

Purkinje fibers

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Functions of Cardiovascular System

Generating blood pressure Routing blood Ensuring one-way blood flow Regulating blood supply

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a recording that traces the flow of electrical current or events through the heart

Electrocardiogram

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depolarization of atria beginning of this precedes the onset of atrial contraction

P wave

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depolarization of ventricles beggining precedes ventricular contraction

QRS Complex

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repolarization of ventricles

T wave

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atria contract and begin to relax; at the end ventricles begin to contract

PQ/PR Interval

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ventricular repolarization and depolarization

QT Interval

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repetitive pumping process begins with the onset of cardiac muscle contraction and ends with beginning next contraction pressure changes produced by heart chambers due to contraction propels blood movement; higher pressure to lower pressure

cardiac cycle

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2 distinct sounds during each cardiac cycle; heard using stethoscope

heart sounds

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S1 lower pitch closure of AV valve at beginning of systole longer and louder

lubb

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S2 higher pitch caused by closure of semilunar valve at end of systole short and sharp

dupp

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abnormal heart sounds caused by faulty valves that fail to close tightly blood leaks swishing sound

murmurs

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volume of blood pumped by either ventricle each minute

cardiac output

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cardiac output =

stroke volume x HR

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volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each heartbeat increases as force of ventricular contraction increases

stroke volume

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normal HR under resting condition

72-75 beats/min

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SV

70 ml/beat

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CO =

5040-5250 ml/min

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the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, just before systole

end diastolic volume

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end diastolic volume

130 ml

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volume of blood in the ventricles just after systole

end systolic volume

70

end systolic volume

50 ml of blood ejection fraction about 65%

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types of blood vessels

arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins

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carries blood away from heart

arteries

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very small arteries that carry blood to capillaries

arterioles

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carries blood to heart

veins

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tunics of arteries / veins

tunica interna/ tunica intima (artery) tunica media tunica externa

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contains lining of simple squamous epith. called endothelium

tunica interna/tunica intima of artery

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microscopic vessels that connect arterioles to venules

capillaries

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veins formed by union of several capillaries

venules

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inner layer is thinner than arteries

tunica interna of vein

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middle layer and thickes layer consists of elastic fibers and smooth muscle fiber cells that extend circularly the lumen

tunica media of artery

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thinner than arteries with little smooth muscle and elastic fibers

tunica media of vein

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outer layer and composed mainly of elastic and collagen fibers

tunica externa of artery

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thickest layer and consists of collagen and elastic fibers

tunica externa of veins

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has lamina

artery

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more deep into skin

artery

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no presence of valves

artery