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Flashcards in Skeletal System Part 1 Deck (61):
1

uses of Endochondral Ossification

natural healing of bone fractures

2

Total Appendicular bones

126

3

cavity of the shaft that is primarily a storage area for adipose (fat) tissue

Yellow Marrow

5

the ends of the long bones

Epiphysis

6

Examples of Flat bones

skull, ribs, sternum

7

Examples of Long bones

all bones of the limbs except the patella (kneecap) and wrists and ankle bones

8

They have two thin layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them

Flat bones

9

Examples of irregular bones

vertebrae, hip bones

10

Gross Structure of a Long bone

Diaphysis
Epiphysis
Epiphysis Line

11

make up most of bone's length; composed of compact bone

Diaphysis or shaft

12

a thin line of decalcified bony tissue spanning the epiphysis in adult bones

Epiphysis line

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Functions oF Skeletal System

provides support
provides protection for the internal organs
allows body movements
stores minerals and fat
site of blood cell production

14

Examples of Short bones

wrist and ankles, sesamoid bones (e.g. patella)

15

A fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers and protects the diaphysis

periosteum

16

glassy hyaline cartilate that covers external surface of Epiphysis

Articular cartilage

17

Two membranes that cover the bone

Periosteum
Endosteum

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bones that do not fint in any categories

Irregular bones

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thinner connective tissue membrane that lines the surface of the medullary cavity

Endosteum

20

Two types of marrow

red marrow
yellow marrow

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Three types of bone cells

Osteocyte
Osteoblast
Osteoclast

22

consist of blood-forming cells; confined to the cavities of spongy bone or flat bones and the epiphyses of some long bones

Red Marrow

23

Classification of bones

Long bones
Short bones
Flat bones
Irregular bones

24

cartilage seen in young, growing bones; cause the lengthwise growth of a long bone

epiphyseal plate

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In adults, the cavity of the shaft is medullary cavity or

yellow marrow

26

generally cube-shaped and contain mostly spongy bone

Short Bones

27

dense and looks smooth and homogenous

compact bone

28

runs lengthwise through the bony matrix; carries blood vessels and nerves to all areas of the bone

Central Canal

29

composed of lacunae that are arranged in concentric circles

Lamellae

30

Two divisions of Human Skeleton

Axial
Appendicular

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a dense connective tissue that covers the outer surface of the bone; contains blood vessels and nerves

Periosteum

32

connects central canals; provides communication between outside and interior of bone

perforating/ Volkmann's canals

33

thin, flattened, and usually curved

Flat bones

34

two primary minerals stored in bones

calcium and phosphorus

35

must be present in the blood at all times for the nervous system to transmit messages, for muscles to contract and for blood to clot

calcium

36

ossification process that occurs within the cartilage

Endochondral Ossification/ Cartilaganous ossification

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blood cell formation

hematopoiesis

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discovered haversian system

Clopton Havers

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Two types of bone formation

Intramembranous Ossification
Endochondral Ossification/ Cartilaganous bone formation

40

Osteogenic cells form

Osteoblast

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Mesenchymal Cells in embryonic time form

osteogenic cells

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secure the periosteum to the underlying bone

perforating/ Sharpey's fibers

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Osteoblasts form

Osteocytes

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Types of bone tissue

compact bone
spongy bone

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tiny canals radiating outward from the central canals to all lacunae

Canaliculi

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Intramembranous Ossification occurs in

flat bones

47

composed of complex structure of central canal and matrix rings

Haversian System or osteon

48

typically longer than they are wide

Long bones

49

tiny cavities within the matrix where osteocytes can be found

Lacunae

50

Endochondral Ossification occurs in

long bones

51

forms bone collar

perichondrium

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forms periosteum

bone collar

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bone forming cells

Osteoblast

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ossification process that occurs within connective tissue membrane

Intramembranous Ossification

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bone eating cells/giant bon-destorying cells in bone to breakdown bone matrix and releace calcium ions into the blood

Osteoclast

56

function of Osteoclast

bone resorption

57

bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body

Axial

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consists of bones of the upper and lower limbs and their girldles

Appendicular

59

Total Axial bones

80

60

stem cells within medullary cavity

mesenchymal cells

61

composed of small needle-like pieces of bone and lots of open spaces

spongy bone

61

mature bone cells

Osteocyte