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Flashcards in Lab Midterm Deck (96):
1

Classification of Bones according to shape

Long
Short
Flat
Irregular

2

Types of joint

Synarthrosis
Amphiarthrosis
Diarthrosis

3

Synarthrosis

immovable

4

Amphiarthrosis

slightly movable

5

Diarthrosis

freely movable

6

air spaces or cavities in the skull

Sinuses

7

Haversian system

Osteon

8

increases calcium level in the blood

Parathormone

9

soft spot in the cranium of an infant

Fontanel

10

shaft of a long bone

diaphysis

11

inflammation of the joint

Arthritis

12

soft tissue in the cavity of a bone

marrow

13

bone formation

ossification

14

end of a long bone

epiphysis

15

pain in the joint

arthralgia

16

lateral movement away from the midline of the trunk

Abduction

17

movement medially toward midline

Adduction

18

circular movement of a limb that delineates an arc or describes a cone

moves the distal end of the bone in circle, while keeping the proximal end relatively stable

Circumduction

19

rotary movement around longitudinal axis of a bone toward midline of body

internal rotation

20

rotary movement around longitudinal axis of a bone away from midline of body

external rotation

21

turning sole of foot inward or medially

inversion

22

turning sole of foot outward or laterally

eversion

23

specifics of inversion and eversion

ankle and foot

24

point toes/foot downward

"stand on tip toes"

plantarflexion

25

point toes/foot upward

"foot off gas pedal"

dorsiflexion

26

rotating hand/forearm laterally

"hold the soup"

supination

27

rotating hand/forear medially

"pour the soup"

pronation

28

superior movement of shoulder girdle

elevation

29

inferior movement of shoulder girdle

depression

30

specifics of elevation and depression

shoulder girdle

31

forward movement of shoulder girdle away from spine

abduction of the scapula

protraction

32

backward movement of shoulder girdle toward spine

adduction of scapula

retraction

33

specifics of protraction and retraction

shoulder girdle

34

diagonal movement of thumb across palmar surface of hand to make contact with hand or fingers

opposition of the thumb

35

movement returning of thumb back to its original position

reposition

36

moving the mandible to either right or left

excursion

37

movement in forward direction

protraction

38

break in continuity of bone or cartilage

fracture

39

fracture hematoma does not communicate with the outside

bone breaks cleanly but does not penetrate the skin

Closed fracture

40

fracture hematoma communicates with the outside with open wound

broken ends of the bone protrude through soft tissues and the skin

Open fracture

41

Traumatic fractures

Closed fracture
Open fracture

42

Pathological fractures

Localized disorder
Generalized disorder

43

e.g. secondary malignant deosit

localized disorder

44

e.g. osteoporosis

generalized disorder

45

Fractures according to Path of the Line

Transverse fracture
Oblique fracture
Spiral Fracture
Longitudinal fracture

46

a sever form of oblique fracture in which the plan rotates along the long axis of the bone. These occur secondary to rotational force

ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone

spiral fracture

47

a fracture in which a line is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone

Transverse fracture

48

a fracture in which the line is at the oblique angle to the long axis of the bone

oblique fracture

49

a fracture in which the line turns nearly parallel to the long axis of the bone.

a long oblique fracture

Longitudinal fracture

50

anatomical classification of fractures

comminuted
stellate
impacted
depressed
avulsion

51

bone is broken into more than two fragments

comminuted

52

occurs if the flat bones of the skull and in the patella where the fracture lines run in various directions from one point

stellate fracture

53

a vertical force drives the distal fragment of the fracture into the proximal fragment

impacted fracture

54

this occurs in the skull where a segment of bone gets depressed into the cranium

depressed fracture

55

this is one where a chip of bone is avulsed by the sudden and unexpected contraction of a powerful muscle from its point of insertion

avulsion fracture

56

is the fracture in the young bone of children where the break is incomplete, leaving one cortex intact

Greenstick

57

3 types of connective tissue in skeletal muscle

endostium
perimysium
epimysium

58

muscles of the head and neck

frontalis
orbicularis oculi
orbicularis oris
zygomaticus
masseter
sternocleidomastoid
buccinator

59

Frontalis

muscles in forehead; moves scalp; elevates eyebrows

60

orbicularis Oculi

circles orbit; close and open eyelids

61

Orbicularis oris

close and open lips

62

Zygomaticus

major - angle of the mouth
Minor - muscle of the upper lip

63

Masseter

chewing

64

Sternocleidomastoid

head move to side

65

Buccinator

compress cheeks inward (whistling)

66

Muscles of the trunk and abdominals

Pectoralis Major
Rectus Abdominis
Trapezius

67

Pectoralis Major

chest; flexes; adducts and rotates arm medially

68

Rectus Abdominis

abdomen - tenses abdominal wall; compresses abdominal contents

69

Trapezius

raises, lowers and rotates scapula

70

Latissimus dorsi

pull shoulder downward and back; extends, adducts and rotates arm

71

Muscles of the upper limb

Biceps Bracchi
Triceps Bracchi
Deltoid
Flexors of the wrist
Extensors of the wrist

72

Biceps Bracchi

flexion of arms

73

Triceps Bracchi

extension of arms

74

Deltoid

abducts, extends and flexes arm at shoulder

75

Flexors of the wrist

flexion of the hand

76

Extensors of the wrist

extension of the hand

77

Muscles of the lower limb

Gluteus maximus
Quadriceps muscles
Hamstrings
Gastrocnemiius

78

Gluteus maximus

extends and rotates thigh laterally at hip

79

Quadriceps muscles

extension of legs

80

flexion of legs

Hamstrings

81

Gastrocnemius

plantarflexion

82

inflammation of bone

osteomyelitis

83

Quadriceps

rectus femoris
vastus lateralis
vastus intermedius
vastus medialis

84

Hamstring

semitendinosus
semimembranosus
biceps femoris

85

injection administered in the muscle

intramuscular injection

86

sites of IM

Deltoid site
Dorso-gluteal site
Ventro-gluteal
Vastus Lateralis

87

most common site for small volumes

Deltoid site

88

Deltoid site

locate the acromion process, place a finger on the process and measure 3 fingerbreaths down

89

adults only

Dorso-gluteal site

90

Landmarks of dorso-gluteal site

posterior superior iliac spine
greater trochanter

91

Dorso-gluteal site

imaginary line is drawn between 2 landmards. Find the center of the line and move 1 inch above the line

92

most comfortable and safest

ventro-gluteal

93

landmarks of ventro-gluteal

greater trochanter
ASIS
Iliac crest

94

Ventro-gluteal

with the patien on the side, place palm of hand on greather trochanter. index finger on ASIS and middle finger toward iliac crest

95

site for newborn/infants

vastus lateralis

96

vastus lateralis

divid the thigh into 3 parts. inject at the middle third