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Flashcards in Lab Deck (158):
1

Anterior etymology

To go before

2

Posterior etymology

Posterns, following

3

Dorsal etymology

Dorsum, back

4

Ventral etymology

Venter, belly

5

Proximal etymology

Proximus, nearest

6

Distal etymology

Di+sto, to be distant

7

Lateral etymology

Latus, side

8

Medial etymology

Medialis, middle

9

Superficial etymology

Superficialis, surface

10

Deep etymology

Deop, deep

11

Nose to forehead

Inferioir

12

Mouth to chin

Superior

13

Teeth to throat

Anterior

14

Brain to eyes

Posterior

15

Spine to breastbone

Dorsal

16

Navel to spine

Ventral

17

Elbow to wrist

Proximal

18

Knee to hip

Distal

19

Nipple to breastbone

Lateral

20

Bridge of nose to eye

Medial

21

Skin to muscle

Superficial

22

Lungs to ribs

Deep

23

Esophagus to trachea

Posterior

24

Veins to arteries

Superficial

25

Forehead

Frontal

26

Breast

Mammary

27

Leg

Crural

28

Ear

Otic

29

Navel

Umbilical

30

Mouth

Oral

31

Arm

Brachial

32

Genital

Pubic

33

Thigh

Femoral

34

Chin

Mental

35

Fingers/toes

Digital

36

Cheek

Buccal

37

Eye

Orbital

38

Groin

Inguinal

39

Front of elbow

Antecubital

40

Breastbone

Sternal

41

Kneecap

Patellar

42

Nose

Nasal

43

Top of foot

Dorsum

44

Forearm

Antebrachial

45

Neck

Cervical

45

Collarbone

Clavicular

46

Wrist

Carpal

47

Hip

Coxal

48

Palm

Palmar

49

Ankle

Talus

50

Chest

Pectoral

51

Pelvis

Pelvic

52

Buttock

Gluteal

53

Back of the hand

Dorsum

54

Base of skull

Occipital

55

Point of shoulder

Acromial

56

Loin

Lumbar

57

Sole

Plantar

58

Spinal column

Vertebral

59

Calf

Sural

60

Skull

Cranial

61

Perineum

Perineal

62

Back of neck

Nuchal

63

Shoulder blade

Scapular

64

Point of elbow

Olecranon

65

Between hips

Sacral

66

Hollow behind knee

Popliteal

67

Heel

Calcaneal

68

Two sets of cavity

Dorsal
Ventral

69

Dorsal cavities

Cranial
Spinal

70

Ventral cavities

Thoracic
Abdominopelvic

71

Thoracic cavities

Pericardial
Pleural

72

Abdominopelvic cavities

Peritoneal

73

Cell activites

Nutrition, Respiration, Responsiveness, Reproduction, Growth, Adaptability

74

They have no membrane-bound nucleus

prokaryotic cells

75

17th century, discovered cell

Robert Hooke

76

plants were made up of cells

Matthias Schleiden

77

animals were made up of cells

Theodor Schwann

78

formulated cell theory

Rudolf Virchow

79

Similarities between plant and animal cells

1. Both have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm
2. Both have a nucleus

80

Differences between Animal and Plant cells

Animal: smaller in size, irregular shape, no cell wall, vacuole small/absent, nucleus at the center

Plant: larger in size, regular shape, cell wall present, large central vacuole, nucleus near the wall

81

three main phases of process of growth of cell

cell division, cell enlargement, cell differentiation

82

When cell divides, _____ divides first the _____

nucleus, cytoplasm

83

When nuclear division is not followed by cytoplasmic division

binucleated cell may result

84

Repeated nuclear divisions without their corresponding cytoplasmic divisions may result in

multinucleated cell or coenocyte or syncytium

85

Mitosis is a kind of

nuclear division

86

Cytoplasmic division

cytokinesis

87

Before the cell undergoes mitosis

interphase, resting of intermitotic stage

88

Mitosis is a _____ process

continuous

89

process that divides into 2 cells

Cell division

90

Why do cells need to divide?

1. grow into more cells
2. repair damaged tissues
3. if cell is so big, cannot get enough nutrients and let out waste

91

thread-like DNA, non-dividing

Chromatin

92

double, coiled dividing

Chromosome

93

has a specific number

Chromosome Number

94

2 chromosomes in a cell

Diploid

95

chromosomes in human

46

96

1 chromosome in a cell

haploid

97

division of nucleus into 2 nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes; occurs in all the somatic body cells

Mitosis

98

chromosome coils up
; nuclear envelope disappear
; spindle fibers form

Prophase

99

longest phase
; cell growth and developments
; DNA replication
cell grow, carries out normal cell activities
; replicates all other organelles

Interphase

100

chromosomes line up in the middle of cell
; spindle fibers connect to chromosome

Metaphase

101

chromosome copies divided
; spindle fibers pull chromosome to opposite pole

Anaphase

102

chromosome uncoil
; nuclear envelope form
; 2 new nuclei are formed
; spindle fibers disappear

Telophase

103

the division of the rest of the cell (cytoplasm and organelles) after the nucleus divides

Cytokinesis

104

Summary of Cell Cycle

Interphase -> Mitosis (PMAT) -> Cytokinesis

105

is the external body covering of an organism

integument

106

Integument comes from the Latin word integumentum which means

a covering

107

The integument system includes

skin and accessory organs

108

composed of cuboidal or columnar cells that undergo mitosis

S. basale

109

Consists of dead, squamous cells filled with keratin

S. corneum

110

Formation of fingerprint and footprint patterns

papillary layer

111

Three layers of cells that contain granules

S. granulosum

112

Flat, polyhedral cells that appear as cytoplasmic extensions

S. spinosum

113

A clear layer of closely packed cells

S. lucidum

114

Protects the body against invasion of substances in the external environment

S. corneum

115

Prominent in the thick skin of the palms and soles

S. lucidum

116

Cholesterol is changed to vitamin D on exposure to ultraviolet rays

S. basale

117

Restricts loss of body water

S. corneum

118

series of events cells go through as they grow and divide

Cell Cycle

119

Four types of animal tissues

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nerve

120

flat appearance and typical mosaic or flat stone arrangement of a sheet of the epitelium

Squamous epithelium

121

typically found in gland and gland-like organs

Cuboidal epihelium

122

finger-like projections

villi

123

function of villi

increase amount of surface area available for absorption of food

124

villi projections with striated borders

microvilli

125

gap or plug on free edges of columnar epithelial cells

goblet cells

126

function of goblet cells

secret mucous to cover and protect the columnar epithelium from being damaged by acid from the stomach

127

composed of a protein called collagen and are white in their natural state

white fibrous tissue

128

most common type of cartilage; skeletal framework

hyaline cartilage

129

embedded in a matrix of collagen fibers on which calcium salts are deposited

bone

130

osteocytes are trapped in small chambers called

lacunae

131

bone is laid down in areas of concentric layers called

lamellae

132

lacunae, lamellae, central canal

haversian system

133

circulating connective tissue in fluid matrix plasma rather than an independent tissue type

blood

134

two major portions of blood

liquid and cellular portion

135

liquid portion

plasma

136

cellular portion

red (erythrocytes) and white (leukocytes) blood cells

137

contracting to move food along the digestive tract

peristalsis

138

other name of skeletal muscle

voluntary striated muscle

139

differences between muscles

skeletal- striated, voluntary
cardia - striated, involuntary
smooth- not striated, involuntary

140

thickened junctions between the end membranes of individual cells of the fiber

intercalated discs

141

basic cellular component of nervous tissue

neuron

142

Classification of burns

Partial-thickness burns
Full-thickness burns

143

Partial-thickness burns

First and Second-degree burns

144

Full-thickness burns

Third Degree burns

145

First degree burn

epidermis

146

Second degree burn

dermis

147

Third-degree burn

hypodermis

148

way to assess degree of burns

Rule of Nines

149

organs of epigastrium

Stomach, Liver, Pancreas, Duodenum, Spleen, Adrenal Glands

150

organs of right hypochondriac

Liver, Gallbladder, Right Kidney, Small Intestine

151

organs of left hypochondriac

Spleen, Colon, Left Kidney, Pancreas

152

organs of umbilical

Umbilicus, Jejunum, Ileum, Duodenum

153

organs of right lumbar

Gallbladder, Liver, Right Colon

154

organs of left lumbar

Descending Colon, Left Kidney

155

organs of hypogastric


Urinary Bladder, Sigmoid Colon, Female Reproductive Organs

156

organs of right iliac

Appendix, Cecum

157

organs of left iliac

Descending Colon, Sigmoid Colon