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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (78):
1

Functions of Respiratory System

Olfaction
Filtration, warming and humidification of inspired air
produce sound for vocalization
responsible for gas exchange
helps regulate blood pH

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Divisions of Respiratory System

Functional
Structural

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Functional Respiratory System

Conducting portion
Respiratory portion

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transports air into and out of lungs

Conducting portion

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Parts of conducting portion

nose
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
bronchioles
terminal bronchioles

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Parts of respiratory portion

Acinus:
respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
alveolar sac
alveoli

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Structural Respiratory System

Upper Respiratory Tract
Lower Respiratory Tract

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Parts of Upper Respiratory Tract

Nose
Pharynx
Larynx

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an external structure that protrudes from the face and supported by nasal bones and cartilage

Nose

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stiff hairs within the nostrils at the anterior nares
filter impurities

vibrissae

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humidifies the air before conducted into the lower respiratory tract

nasal cavity

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a funel tube, about 13 cm long, that starts from the internal nares and extends to the level of cricoid cartilage

pharynx

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superior portion that lies posterior to the nasal cavity and extends to the plane of the soft palate

lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium where the cilia are sweeping downward

nasopharynx

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the intermediate portion of the pharynx that lies posteriorly to the oral cavity and extends from the soft palate inferiorly to the level of hyoid bone

oropharynx

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inferior portion of the pharynx that begins at the level of hyoid bone and opens to the esophagus posteriorly and the larynx anteriorly

aka hypopharynx

laryngopharynx

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a short passageway that connects the laryngopharynx with the trachea

aka voice box

larynx

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consists of 2 fused plates of hyaline cartilage that form the anterior wall of the larynx and give it a triangular shape

thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple)

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the ligament that connects the thyroid cartilage, covered with epithelium that closes the larynx upon swallowing

epiglottis

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a ring of hyaline cartilage that forms the inferior wall of the larynx

serves as landmark for making emergency airway (tracheostomy)
attached to the thyroid cartilage by the cricothyroid ligament
attached to 1st cartilage of trachea by cricotrachel ligament

cricoid cartilage

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parts of Lower Respiratory Tract

trachea
primary bronchi
secondary and tertiary bronchi
terminal bronchioles
acinus

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16-20 c-shaped cartilages

a tubular passageway for air that is about 12 cm long and 2.5 cm in diameter
located anterior to the esophagus and extends from the larynx to the superior border of the T5 where it bifurcates into R and L bronchi

most sensitive part that has coughing reflexes

mucosa is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

trachea

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function of trachea

maintain patency of airway

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a cartilaginous ridge between the two bronchi and the point where the trachea bifurcates into R and L primary bronchi

Carina

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serves as a passageway of air to the right and left lung

primary bronchi

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mucosa of primary bronchi

lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

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subdivisions of the main bronchi and spread in an inverted tree-like formation

Secondary and tertiary bronchi

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lined with simple ciliated columnar epithelium with some goblet cells

larger bronchioles

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lined with simple ciliated cuboidal epithelium with no goblet cells

smaller bronchioles

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the last airway of the conducting system

terminal bronchioles

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composed of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sac and alveoli

acinus or alveoli

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branch from the respiratory bronchioles

alveolar ducts

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arises from the ducts, contain clusters of alveoli

alveolar sac

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basic unit of gas exchange

alveoli

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2 types of cells in alveoli

Type I Pneumocyte
Type II Pneumocyte

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predominant

simple squamous epithelial cells that form a nearly continuous lining of alveolar wall

Type I Pneumocyte

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fewer in number
rounded or cuboidal epithelial cells where free surfaces contain microvilli and secretes alveolar fluid that keep the alveolar walls moist

Type II Pneumocyte

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a mixture of phospholipids and lipoproteins that lowers the surface tension of the alveolar fluid thereby reducing the tendency of the alveoli to collapse

surfactant

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paired cone-shaped organs that are essential for breathing
are elastic connective tissues, called stroma and are soft and spongy

lungs

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parts of lungs

apex
base
hilus

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a pointed portion that lies below the clavicles
superior

apex

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inferior portion that rests on the diaphragm

base

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a slit on the mediastinal surface of each lung where blood vessels of the pulmonary and circulatory systems enter and exit the lungs

hilus

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lobes of the lungs

right lung
left lung

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consists of 3 lobes (superior, intermediate, inferior) and have 10 bronchopulmonary segements

Right lung

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much smaller than right and consists of 2 lobes (superior, inferior) and have 2 bronchopulmonary segments

Left lung

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a doubled-layer membrane that covers the lungs and the inside of the thoracic cavities

pleura

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outer serous membrane that lines the thoracic wall and mediastinum

contains pain receptors

parietal pleura

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inner serous membrane that covers the external surface of the lung

no pain receptors

visceral pleura

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Defenses of the Respiratory system

Mucocillary transport
alveolar clearance
reflexes of the airways

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escalator system

provides a major defense of the respiratory tract that includes goblet cells, mucus and ciliated epithelial cells

mucocillary transport

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macrophage activity is the principal alveolar defense against particles and it includes mucocillary transport, blood flow/vessels and lyphatic vessels

alveolar clearance

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includes sneezing, coughing, gagging and bronchospasm/bronchonstriction reflex

reflexes o the airways

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Muscles of Breathing

Quiet Breathing
Forced breathing

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Quiet breathing muscles

diaphragm muscle
external intercostal muscle

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dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity

diaphragm muscle

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superficial muscle between the ribs that pulls the ribs upward and outward

external intercostal muscle

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forced breathing muscles

Inspiration:
Sternocleidomastoid
Scalene
Pectoral
Trapezius

Expiration:
Internal Intercostal
Abdominal muscles

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sides of the neck
raises sternum

sternocleidomastoid

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in the neck
elevates, fix and expand the upper chest

scalene

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upper chest
raises the chest to increase the A-P diameter

pectoral

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upper back
raises the back upon forced inspiration

trapezius

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deep muscles between the ribs
shortens the chest transverse diameter

internal intercostal

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pulls down the lower chest
depressing the lower ribs

abdominal muscles

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Involuntary Components

Chemoreceptors
Lung Stretch Receptors
Impulses from Other Sources

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monitors level of carbon dioxide, oxygen and the pH of blood

Chemoreceptors

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Hering-Breuer Reflex
monitor patterns of breathing and prevent overexpansion of lung tissues

Lung Stretch Receptors

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e.g. frigtened, angry
autonomic nervous system

Impulses from other sources

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integrates breathing with acts such as talking, speaking, singing

voluntary component

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process of gas exchange in the body

respiration

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exchange of gases between air spaces (alveoli) of the lungs and the blood in the and pulmonary capillaries

External Respiration

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exchange of gases between blood and systemic capillaries and tissue cells

Internal Respiration

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2 types of respiration

External and Internal respiration

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mechanical flow of air into and out of lungs

Pulmonary Ventilation

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passage of blood through lung tissue

Pulmonary Perfusion

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ratio of ventilation to perfusion that expresses the effectiveness of gas exchange

V/Q ratio

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normal V/Q ratio

4L/min air
5L/min blood

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atmospheric pressure

760 mmHg

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Peripheral Chemoreceptors

Aortic bodies
Carotid bodies