Exam 1 - Name The Disease & EDx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1 - Name The Disease & EDx Deck (64):
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Equine cutaneous & subcutaneous mycosis; Nasal granulomas, Chronic Granulomatous ulcerative lesions on limbs & ventral abdomen; pruritic, mucosanguineous exudate; *Kunkers*

Equine Pythiosis - Pythium insidiosum

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Equine cutaneous & subcutaneous mycosis; Nasal granulomas, Chronic Granulomatous ulcerative lesions on limbs & ventral abdomen; pruritic, mucosanguineous exudate; *Kunkers*

Equine Pythiosis - Pythium insidiosum - "Swamp Cancer"

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Fungal infection of SQ tissue by dematiacious (dark pigmented) fungi, form thick wall cells "Schlerotic bodies". Warty ulcerative nodules on feet & legs.

Chromoblastomycosis

4

Hyphae present, CNS involvement common, Warty ulcerative nodules on feet & legs.

Phaeohyphomycosis

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SQ swellings w/draining tracts, resembles chronic non-healing abscess, Fistulous tumor development, "Triad of CS" Swelling, fistulas, granules in exudate

Eumycotic mycetomas - EDx -dont memorize

6

Dogs- Most virulent fungal pathogen, Often in alkaline desert soils, digging dogs v. susceptible: Dyspnea, cough, weight loss, white granumlomas. Spherules found in samples

BIOHAZARD!! Coccidioidomycosis (San Juan Valley Fever) Edx- Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii.

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Dogs & cats- chronic disease, anemia, inappetance, weight loss, poor antibiotic response, Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, lymphadenomegaly, ascites, granulomatous lesions. Primary site @ lungs, also to GI, spleen, liver, BM. Found in near highly nitrogenous soils with bird & bat droppings. **Mississippi & Ohio River Watersheds**

Histoplasmosis - EDx: Histoplasma capsulatum

8

Present worldwide in acidic soils, *Dogs*/Humans/Pronouced in Cats - Bad1 virulence factor, Cutaneous pyogranulomas, gray-yellow areas in lungs*, Signs (in most likely to least likely seen): Coughing, dyspnea, skin lesions, ocular manifestations, lameness

Blastomycosis - EDx: Blastomyces dermatidis -(In USA: Principal systemic mycoses)

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Nasal cavity infection! Sneezing, hard, nodular swlling over nose, distortion of nasal cavity, CNS in dogs, Cattle seen w/mastitis maybe. *Picture of cat's face*

Cryptococcosis - EDx: Cryptococcus neoformans

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Dogs: Otitis externa & dermatitis!

EDx: Malassezia pachydermatis

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Localized mucocutaneous disease: squamous epithelium, white-gray plaques, ulcerative with inflammation, mainly neutrophilic, rarely granulomatous. *Birds most frequently*

Candidiasis - EDx: Candidia albicans

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Digestive tract disease of chickens & turkeys, Young chicks/poults are most susceptible, Thickened mucosa of crop with whitish, raised pseudomembranes. Listlessness and inappetance seen in animals.

"Thrush, Crop mycosis, Sour Crop" - Candidiasis in birds - EDx: Candidia albicans

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Dog & Cats- Ulcerative lesions in digestive & genital tract

Candidiasis in dogs & cats

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Horses & Swine - Alimentary canal, ulcerative lesions can lead to rupture, equine abortions/infertility/metritis

Candidiasis in horses & swine

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Primary bronchopulmonary: dyspnea, *gasping*, polypnea, anorexia. Torticollis if disseminated to brain, Yellow nodules & plaques in respiratory passages, White material: yellowish nodules are characteristic

"Brooder pneumonia" Aspergillosis in birds - EDx:

16

Pyrexia, rapid shallow stertorous respiration, nasal discharge, moist cough. Firm, heavy & mottled lungs that do not collapse. In sub-acute to chronic forms, lungs contain multiple discrete granulomas

Mycotic pneumonia - Aspergillosis in Ruminants

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6-9 month gestation abortion, fetal membranes retained, lesions on uterus, fetal membranes, fetal skin. Intercaruncular areas are grossly thickened, leathery, dark red to tan. Maternal caruncles are dark red to brown. Aborted fetus cutaneous lesions are soft, red-grey, elevated discrete foci that resemble ringworm

Bovine mycotic abortion - Aspergillosis in Ruminants

18

Mycotic plaques in guttural pouch, on caudodorsal aspect of medial guttural pouch, over the internal carotid artery. Signs: *Epistaxis* from erosion of artery wall. Spontaneous & severe hemorrhage, repeated bouts.

Guttural Pouch Mycosis - Aspergillosis in horses

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Signs: lethargy, nasal pain, ulceration of nares, sneezing, unilateral or bilateral sanguinopurulent nasal discharge, frontal sinus osteomyelitis & epstaxis. Mucosa & underlying bone may be necrotic with loss of bone seen in radiographs. Disseminated in what breed?

Canine nasal Aspergillosis - Disseminated in GSD

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Hyaline septate hyphae that branch dichotomously with a 45 degree angle

Aspergillus spp.

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Nasal mycosis in dogs

Penicillum spp.

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Mycetoma & pneumonia in dogs - Mastitis, ocular dz and abortion in horse & cattle

Pseudallescheria boydii

23

Mycotic bovine abortions, GI infection in ruminants, swine & dogs, hematogenous and CNS infections

Rhizopus spp. - Absidia spp. - Mucor spp. - Morteinella spp.

24

Aquatic protista, granulomatous mucocutaneous infections. Chronic polypous rhinitis with large sporangia horses/ cattle/ mules/ dogs/ goats/ waterfowl/ humans,

Rhinosporidium seeberi

25

Fungal outbreak in skin of humans & dolphins, yeast cells look related to Paracoccidioides brasilensis

Lobomycosis - Lacazia loboi

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Amphibians - Skin: interferes with respiration, hydration & osmoregulation

Chydridiomycosis - EDx: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

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Cause of decline in hibernating bat populations

White Nose syndrome - EDx: Geomyces destructans

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Dog- hemorrhagic diarrhea, CNS & eye lesions, exposure by ingestion/ percutaneously/ intramammary injections from algae lacking chlorophyll

Protothecosis

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Case study - Feline granulomatous lesion, excision is treatment of choice

Sporotrichosis

30

Case study - No underlying disease or immunosuppression, first case where underlying cause was not obvious

Candidiasis in dog

31

Case study - First documented case of systemic yeast infection of a dog. Most systemic are due to C. neoformans

Systemic candidiasis from C. albidus in a dog

32

Case study - Horse originally treated unsuccessfully for mastitis, yeast was observed & Blastomyces cultured.

Blastomycosis in horse - Should be higher on DDx for horse mastitis & dermatitis

33

Case study - Horse: large mass at root of mesentery & multiple smaller mesenteric masses. Dx from gross, microscopic & immunohistochemical findings

Histoplasma in horse

34

Bovine: Gangrenous mastitis with sloughing, tissue necrosis, cold & blue-black utter, Brown milk,

Bovine staphylococcal mastitis - EDx: Staph. Aureus

35

EU, pasture fed lambs, lambs appear crippled & have suppressed immune system

Tick Pyemia - Staph. aureus infects tick bites

36

Poultry: Pododermatitis - lameness, foot swellings, spondylitis (sometimes)

Bumblefoot - Staph. aureus

37

Suppurative granulomatous condition follows castration in horse - infected stump of spermatic cord

Staphylococcal botryomycosis - Staph. aureus

38

Sow mastitis

Staph. aureus

39

*Skin & ear infections (otitis) in dogs*, occasional bovine mastitis, pyoderma, otitis externa, mastitis, endometritis, cystitis, osteomyelitis & wound infections

Staph. pseudointermedius

40

*Skin infections, arthritis in pigs*; skin, milk of cattle; avian arthritis

Staph. hyicus

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Weaned pigs up to 3 months of age, highly contagious, **Excessive sebaceous secretion, exfoliation & exudation on skin surface**, nonpruritic dermatitis, die within 24-48hrs, often starts at bite wounds

Greasy pig disease - Staph. hyicus

42

Equine- febrile rhinopharyngitis w/abscessation of lymph nodes, guttural pouch empyema, swollen nodes, high fever, depression. *Oculonasal discharge* May develop purpura hemorrhagica after illness, Can complicate into abscessation of many organs- purulent mesenteric lymph nodes

Strangles - EDx: Streptococcius equi subsp equi (Turned into bastard/metastatic strangles)

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Pigs: meningitis (fever, tremors, incoordination, opisthotonus, convulsions), arthritis, septicemia, bronchopneumonia of all ages, sporadic valvular endocarditis, neonatal deaths & abortions. *Zoonotic! Humans with suppurative brain inflammation*

Streptococcus suis infection

44

Pigs- submandibular lymphadenitis, Jowl Abscess

Streptococcus porcinus (DDx with mycobacterium tuberculosis)

45

Top three DDx for bovine clinical mastitis

Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B, beta hemolytic, chronic mastitis) - Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Group C, alpha hemolytic, acute mastitis) - Streptococcus uberus (no group. alpha hemolytic)

46

UTI and otitis externa, might establish in patients receiving antibiotic treatment, Once classified as Group D streptococci

Enterococcus

47

Superficial goat form (enlarged and abscessed superficial lymph nodes) Visceral sheep form (abscesses of internal organs & lymphnodes, may not be detected ante-mortem). Both forms show onion ring appearance on cytology/ cross section of abscess; Phospholipase D (leukotoxic) aids spread.

Caseous lymphadenitis - EDx: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

48

Marked swelling & abscesses of lymph nodes, pectoral & lower limbs; may rupture and leave ulcers. Onset slow & chronic. Hematogenous dissemination is rare. Edema in affected limbs, ulcerated nodule esuce thick, green, odorless, blood-tinged pus

Ulcerative lymphangitis "Pigeon breast" or "Pigeon fever" in horses - EDx: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

49

Inflammation of urinary bladder of cattle, may ascend to kidneys. Kicking at abdomen, urine in blood and arched back. Pathogenesis: Pili attach to urothelium--> ureases produce ammonia--> high alklalinity in urine

Bovine cystitis & pyelonephritis - EDx: C. cystidis (more severe form), & C. renale

50

Swelling of prepuce & head of penis, can be enabled by High Protein Diet!, Ammonia likely initiates inflammatory process

Ulcerative enzootic balanoposthitis - "Pizzle Rot" - Sheep, sometimes goats

51

Case Study - MRSA in 76 yr old man, Had an 8 year old lab.

Reverse zoonosis of Staphylococcus MRSA. Becoming more common

52

Case Study - Caseous lymphadenitis in ruminants. Oryx: unusual localizations of abscess, flies commonly seen feeding on lesions, may have helped harbor & disseminate the infection

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis & C. renale in arabian oryx

53

Case Study - Etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis of small ruminents around world. Difficult to treat & eradicate, ineffective drug therapy. Discusses novel virulent factors.

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

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DDx list for mastitis (as of exam 1)

Staphylococcus aureus - Streptococci agalactiae - Streptococci uberis

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DDx for abortion (as of exam 1)

Streptococcus zooepidemicus

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DDx for skin disease (as of exam 1)

Staph aureus (Bumble foot, staph botryomycosis) - Staph hyicus (greasy pig) - Staph intermedius (K9 pyoderma & dermatitis)

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When I say caseous lymphadenitis, you say....

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

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When I say Greasy Pig disease, you say

Staphylococcus hyicus

59

When I say gangrenous bovine mastitis, you say...

Staph. aureus!

60

When I say strangles, you say...

Streptococcus equi!

61

When I say pig meningitis, arthritis & septicemia, you say...

Streptococcus suis!

62

When I say yeast infection of dog ears, you say...

Malessezia spp! (likely pachydermatis)

63

When I say feline ringworm, you say...

Microsporum canis!

64

When I saw swamp cancer or Kunkers, you say...

Equine pythiosus! Pythium insidiosum