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Flashcards in FA Endotoxins & Bacterial Growth Deck (19):
1

A lipopolysaccharide found in outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria

Endotoxin

2

What is the most important endotoxin of which to be aware?

Lipid A

3

FA says ENDOTOXIN should make you think:

Edema
Nitric oxide
DIC/Death
Outer membrane
TNF-alpha
O-antigen
eXtremely heat stable
IL-1
Neutrophil chemotaxis

4

endotoxin (esp lipid A) has three primary (first) effects:

1. Activates macrophages
2. Activates complement
3. Activates tissue factor

5

Endotoxin --> activates macrophages --> (three effects)

IL-1, TNF-alpha, NO

6

IL-1 -->

Fever

7

TNF-alpha -->

Fever and hypotension

8

NO -->

Hypotension

9

Endotoxin --> complement activation --> 2 things

c3a & c5a

10

C3a -->

hypotension + edema

11

C5a -->

neutrophil chemotaxis

12

endotoxin --> tissue factor activation -->

coagulation cascade --> DIC

13

what do you call the period of bacterial growth in which there is metabolic activity without division

lag phase

14

what do you call the period of rapid cell division on the bacterial growth curve

exponential/log phase

15

At what phase of bacterial growth do penicillins and cephalosporins act?

exponential/log phase (peptidoglycan is being made)

16

What do you call the period of bacterial growth in which nutrient depletion slows growth

stationary phase

17

What do you call the phase of bacterial growth where there is prolonged nutrient depletion and buildup of waste production?

death phase

18

at what phase in bacterial growth do some bacteria make spores?

stationary phase

19

what are the four phases of bacterial growth:

1. lag phase
2. exponential growth phase
3. stationary phase
4. death phase