Flashcards in FA Endotoxins & Bacterial Growth Deck (19):
A lipopolysaccharide found in outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria
What is the most important endotoxin of which to be aware?
FA says ENDOTOXIN should make you think:
eXtremely heat stable
endotoxin (esp lipid A) has three primary (first) effects:
1. Activates macrophages
2. Activates complement
3. Activates tissue factor
Endotoxin --> activates macrophages --> (three effects)
IL-1, TNF-alpha, NO
Fever and hypotension
Endotoxin --> complement activation --> 2 things
c3a & c5a
hypotension + edema
endotoxin --> tissue factor activation -->
coagulation cascade --> DIC
what do you call the period of bacterial growth in which there is metabolic activity without division
what do you call the period of rapid cell division on the bacterial growth curve
At what phase of bacterial growth do penicillins and cephalosporins act?
exponential/log phase (peptidoglycan is being made)
What do you call the period of bacterial growth in which nutrient depletion slows growth
What do you call the phase of bacterial growth where there is prolonged nutrient depletion and buildup of waste production?
at what phase in bacterial growth do some bacteria make spores?