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Flashcards in FA Rapid Review 1 Deck (61)
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31

Iris-like target lesions.

Erythema multiforme

32

A 16-year-old presents with an annular patch of alopecia with broken-off, stubby hairs.

Alopecia areata (autoimmune process)

33

Pinkish, scaling, flat lesions on the chest and back. KOH prep has a "spaghetti-and-meatballs" appearance.

Pityriasis versicolor

34

Premalignant lesion from sun exposure that can → squamous cell carcinoma.

actinic keratosis

35

Associated with Propionibacterium acnes and changes in androgen levels.

Acne vulgaris

36

Inflammation and epithelial thinning of the anogenital area, predominantly in postmenopausal women.

Lichen sclerosus

37

Exophytic nodules on the skin with varying degrees of scaling or ulceration; the second most common type of skin cancer.

SCCA

38

The most common cause of hypothyroidism.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

39

Lab findings in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

High TSH, low T4, antimicrosomal antibodies

40

Exophthalmos, pretibial myxedema, and ↓ TSH.

Graves' disease

41

A patient presents with signs of hypocalcemia, high phosphorus, and low PTH.

Hypoparathyroidism

42

A patient complains of headache, weakness, and polyuria; exam reveals hypertension and tetany. Labs reveals hypernatremia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis.

1° hyperaldosteronism (due to Conn's syndrome or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia)

43

A patient presents with tachycardia, wild swings in BP, headache, diaphoresis, altered mental status, and a sense of panic.

Pheochromocytoma

44

A patient with a history of lithium use presents with copious amounts of dilute urine.

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (DI)

45

Treatment of central DI.

Administration of DDAVP ↓ serum osmolality and free water restriction

46

A postoperative patient with significant pain presents with hyponatremia and normal volume status.

SIADH due to stress

47

An antidiabetic agent associated with lactic acidosis.

Metformin

48

A patient presents with weakness, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and new skin pigmentation. Labs show hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Treatment?

1° adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease). Treat with replacement glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and IV fluids

49

Tx DKA

Fluids, insulin, and aggressive replacement of electrolytes (e.g., K+)

50

Why are β-blockers contraindicated in diabetics?

They can mask symptoms of hypoglycemia

51

Cross-sectional survey—incidence or prevalence?

Prevalence

52

Cross-sectional survey—incidence or prevalence?

Incidence and prevalence

53

Case-control study—incidence or prevalence?

neither

54

Describe a test that consistently gives identical results, but the results are wrong.

High reliability, low validity

55

Difference between a cohort and a case-control study.

Cohort studies can be used to calculate relative risk (RR), incidence, and/or odds ratio (OR). Case-control studies can be used to calculate an OR

56

Number needed to treat?

1 ÷ (rate in untreated group − rate in treated group)

57

In which patients do you initiate colorectal cancer screening early?

Patients with IBD; those with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)/hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC); and those who have first-degree relatives with adenomatous polyps (< 60 years of age) or colorectal cancer

58

The most common cancer in men and the most common cause of death from cancer in men.

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, but lung cancer causes more deaths

59

The percentage of cases within one SD of the mean? Two SDs? Three SDs?

68%, 95.5%, 99.7%

60

A 15-year-old pregnant girl requires hospitalization for preeclampsia. Should her parents be informed?

No. Parental consent is not necessary for the medical treatment of pregnant minors