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Flashcards in Feed Nutrients Deck (77):
1

What is nutrition?

A chemical compound or element that aides in the support of life

2

What are nutrients needed for?

They are needed by cells in order to grow, divide, live,& function properly.

3

What are the 5 classifications of nutrients?

~Energy Nutrients ( carbs, fats, & oils)
~Protein
~Vitamins
~Minerals
~Water

4

What are carbs made of?

Sugars, starches, cellulose, & lignin

5

What does the body do with carbs?

~burns the carbs for energy for cells
~or is stored when not used
~releases heat for warmth

6

What do carbs allow energy for?

~Heartbeat
~Walking
~Breathing
~Digestive contractions

7

What are the two classifications of Carbohydrates?

Simple and complex

8

What are simple carbs made of?

Sugars and starches

9

What are complex carbs made of?

Fiber - composed of cellulose and lignin

10

How are fats and oils different from carbs?

Fats and oils provide more energy than carbs to animals

11

How much more energy do fats and oils provide compared to carbs?

2.25 times as much

12

How are fats and oils different from each other?

Fats are solid at body temperature.
Oils are liquid at body temperature.

13

What are sources of fats & oils?

Cereal grains, rendered animal fat (crisco), oil seeds ( flax seed, sunflower seed

14

What is a protein?

Organic compounds made up of amino acids

15

What are proteins used for?

They are used to build body tissue, horns, hooves, hair, internal organs, muscles & skin

16

Which animals need protein the most?

Pregnant animals

17

What are sources of protein?

Urea, soybean meal, cotton seed meal, linseed meal, meat meal, fish meal, whey, dried milk

18

What are vitamins?

Trace organic compounds- needed in small amounts

19

What are the two types of vitamins?

Fat soluble and water soluble

20

What are the fat soluble vitamins?

A, D, E, K

21

What do fat soluble vitamins do?

They help with healthy eyes, conception rate, & disease resistance

22

What are water soluble vitamins?

C and B-complex

23

What do water soluble vitamins do?

They help with teeth and bone formation, increased energy, increased appetite, growth & reproduction.

24

What are sources of vitamins?

Green leafy hay, milk, cod liver oil

25

What are minerals?

Inorganic materials needed in trace amounts

26

What do minerals do?

They provide for bone growth, teeth & tissue, aid in muscular activities, repair body tissue, digestion of feed, other body processes, immunity to diseases

27

What are sources of minerals?

Mineral blocks & milled into feeds

28

What are the 2 types of minerals?

Macro minerals and micro minerals

29

What are the differences between the two types of minerals?

Marco minerals are needed in larger amounts.
Micro minerals are needed in smaller amounts.

30

What is water?

Water makes up the largest mass of living organisms

31

How much water do animals need?

Amount needed varies by animal

32

What percentage of an animal's body is made up of water?

40%-80%

33

What does water do?

~Controls body temperature
~Dissolves nutrients
~Acts as a carrier in blood for nutrients
~Is needed for certain chemical reactions in the body

34

What is a macro mineral?

Mineral needed in larger amounts ( larger than small)

35

What are the macro minerals?

Calcium (Ca)
Phosphorus (P)
Sodium (Na)
Chlorine (Cl)
Potassium (K)
Sulfur (S)
Magnesium (Mg)

36

What does calcium do?

~Bone and teeth development
~Essential for lactating animals and laying hens
~Nerve and Muscle function

37

What are the deficiency symptoms for calcium?

~Rickets
~Broken bones
~Slow growth
~Milk fever

38

What is the correct ratio for calcium to phosphorus?

1:1 or 1:2

39

What are the sources of calcium?

~grains, grain by products, straw, dried manure, grasses
~supplements
~forages
~fishmeal, milk, citrus pulp

40

What are consequences of calcium toxicity?

~decreased absorption of other minerals
~calcification of soft tissues
~kidney stone formation

41

Phosphorus functions

bone and teeth development
appetite
milk and egg production
reproduction
conversion of cartolene to vitamin A
vitamin D utilization

42

Phosphorous deficiency functions

lameness
stiff joints
low appetite
reduced rate of grain
breeding problems

43

Phosphorous sources

wheat bran
meat scraps
tankage
fish meal
dried skim milk
legume and grass pastures
cereal grain and by products
mineral supplements

44

Salt (sodium and chlorine) functions

maintains osmotic functions

45

Salt (Na and Cl) deficiency symptoms

lameness
stiff joints

46

Salt (Na/Cl) sources

Hay salt (loose)
salt block

47

Salt (Na/Cl) toxicity

staggering gait
blindness
nervous disorder
hyperventilation

48

Potassium (K) functions

osmotic pressure
maintain acid-base balance of body fluids
muscle activity
carb digestion

49

Potassium (K) deficiency symptoms

slow growth rate
reduced feed consumption
muscle weakness
diarrhea

50

Potassium (K) sources

forages
grains and concentrates

51

Potassium (K) toxicity

diarrhea
tremors
heart failure

52

Magnesium (Mg) functions

activate enzyme systems in body
maintenance of nervous system
carb digestion
use of zinc, phosphorus, and nitrates
skeletal development

53

Mg deficiency symptoms

muscle spasms
convulsions
hyper irritability

54

Mg sources

could mix with salt or supplement
(if low diet) from softened bones

55

Sulfur (S) functions

make-up amino acids
lipid metabolism

56

Sulfur deficiency symptoms

unthriftiness (runt)
slow growth

57

Sulfur sources

forages (especially legumes)
water

58

What are the trace/micro minerals

iron (Fe)
copper(Cu)
zinc (Zn)
Iodine (I)
Cobalt (Co)
Manganese (Mn)
Molybdenum (Mo)
Selenium (Se)
Silicon (Si)
Fluorine (F)
Chromium (Cr)

59

Iron (Fe) functions

hemoglobin formation
oxidation of nutrients in cells

60

Iron (Fe) deficiency symptoms

anemia

61

Iron (Fe) sources

grains
forages
(trace) mineralized salt with iron

62

Copper functions

hemoglobin formation activate some enzyme systems
hair development and pigment
wool growth
reproduction
lactation

63

Copper deficiency symptoms

severe diarrhea
slow growth
swelling of joints
weakness at birth

64

Copper sources

feeds have more than needed

65

Copper toxicity

levels - above 50ppm
symptoms - anemia, jaundice

66

Zinc functions

normal development of skin, hair, wool, bones and eyes
prevents parakeratosis
promotes healing
enzyme systems
metabolism
protein synthesis
insulin

67

Zinc deficiency symptoms

parakertosis (elephant skin swine)
elephant skin on neck, muzzle, back of ears on cattle

68

Selenium functions

vitamin absorption

69

Selenium deficiency symptoms

whites muscle disease
retained placenta in ruminants
low fertility in ruminants
diarrhea

70

Selenium sources

injections*
roughages

71

Selenium toxicity

death
wandering
blind staggers
stumbling
impaired vision

72

Ingredients in pig and chicken diets are

corn and soybeans

73

Pig diets are rich in what 5 things?

whole grains
vitamins
minerals
protein
energy

74

Grinding corn is better for pigs and corn b/c

easier digested
prevents feed sorting

75

Feed sorting

when parts of feed are picked out and eaten first (by color or feed)

76

What size is pig/ chicken feed?

about 700 microns

77

Why is 700 microns the best size for pig/chicken feed?

easier on money and best for animal