Flashcards in Feed Nutrients Deck (77):
What is nutrition?
A chemical compound or element that aides in the support of life
What are nutrients needed for?
They are needed by cells in order to grow, divide, live,& function properly.
What are the 5 classifications of nutrients?
~Energy Nutrients ( carbs, fats, & oils)
What are carbs made of?
Sugars, starches, cellulose, & lignin
What does the body do with carbs?
~burns the carbs for energy for cells
~or is stored when not used
~releases heat for warmth
What do carbs allow energy for?
What are the two classifications of Carbohydrates?
Simple and complex
What are simple carbs made of?
Sugars and starches
What are complex carbs made of?
Fiber - composed of cellulose and lignin
How are fats and oils different from carbs?
Fats and oils provide more energy than carbs to animals
How much more energy do fats and oils provide compared to carbs?
2.25 times as much
How are fats and oils different from each other?
Fats are solid at body temperature.
Oils are liquid at body temperature.
What are sources of fats & oils?
Cereal grains, rendered animal fat (crisco), oil seeds ( flax seed, sunflower seed
What is a protein?
Organic compounds made up of amino acids
What are proteins used for?
They are used to build body tissue, horns, hooves, hair, internal organs, muscles & skin
Which animals need protein the most?
What are sources of protein?
Urea, soybean meal, cotton seed meal, linseed meal, meat meal, fish meal, whey, dried milk
What are vitamins?
Trace organic compounds- needed in small amounts
What are the two types of vitamins?
Fat soluble and water soluble
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
A, D, E, K
What do fat soluble vitamins do?
They help with healthy eyes, conception rate, & disease resistance
What are water soluble vitamins?
C and B-complex
What do water soluble vitamins do?
They help with teeth and bone formation, increased energy, increased appetite, growth & reproduction.
What are sources of vitamins?
Green leafy hay, milk, cod liver oil
What are minerals?
Inorganic materials needed in trace amounts
What do minerals do?
They provide for bone growth, teeth & tissue, aid in muscular activities, repair body tissue, digestion of feed, other body processes, immunity to diseases
What are sources of minerals?
Mineral blocks & milled into feeds
What are the 2 types of minerals?
Macro minerals and micro minerals
What are the differences between the two types of minerals?
Marco minerals are needed in larger amounts.
Micro minerals are needed in smaller amounts.
What is water?
Water makes up the largest mass of living organisms
How much water do animals need?
Amount needed varies by animal
What percentage of an animal's body is made up of water?
What does water do?
~Controls body temperature
~Acts as a carrier in blood for nutrients
~Is needed for certain chemical reactions in the body
What is a macro mineral?
Mineral needed in larger amounts ( larger than small)
What are the macro minerals?
What does calcium do?
~Bone and teeth development
~Essential for lactating animals and laying hens
~Nerve and Muscle function
What are the deficiency symptoms for calcium?
What is the correct ratio for calcium to phosphorus?
1:1 or 1:2
What are the sources of calcium?
~grains, grain by products, straw, dried manure, grasses
~fishmeal, milk, citrus pulp
What are consequences of calcium toxicity?
~decreased absorption of other minerals
~calcification of soft tissues
~kidney stone formation
bone and teeth development
milk and egg production
conversion of cartolene to vitamin A
vitamin D utilization
Phosphorous deficiency functions
reduced rate of grain
dried skim milk
legume and grass pastures
cereal grain and by products
Salt (sodium and chlorine) functions
maintains osmotic functions
Salt (Na and Cl) deficiency symptoms
Salt (Na/Cl) sources
Hay salt (loose)
Salt (Na/Cl) toxicity
Potassium (K) functions
maintain acid-base balance of body fluids
Potassium (K) deficiency symptoms
slow growth rate
reduced feed consumption
Potassium (K) sources
grains and concentrates
Potassium (K) toxicity
Magnesium (Mg) functions
activate enzyme systems in body
maintenance of nervous system
use of zinc, phosphorus, and nitrates
Mg deficiency symptoms
could mix with salt or supplement
(if low diet) from softened bones
Sulfur (S) functions
make-up amino acids
Sulfur deficiency symptoms
forages (especially legumes)
What are the trace/micro minerals
Iron (Fe) functions
oxidation of nutrients in cells
Iron (Fe) deficiency symptoms
Iron (Fe) sources
(trace) mineralized salt with iron
hemoglobin formation activate some enzyme systems
hair development and pigment
Copper deficiency symptoms
swelling of joints
weakness at birth
feeds have more than needed
levels - above 50ppm
symptoms - anemia, jaundice
normal development of skin, hair, wool, bones and eyes
Zinc deficiency symptoms
parakertosis (elephant skin swine)
elephant skin on neck, muzzle, back of ears on cattle
Selenium deficiency symptoms
whites muscle disease
retained placenta in ruminants
low fertility in ruminants
Ingredients in pig and chicken diets are
corn and soybeans
Pig diets are rich in what 5 things?
Grinding corn is better for pigs and corn b/c
prevents feed sorting
when parts of feed are picked out and eaten first (by color or feed)
What size is pig/ chicken feed?
about 700 microns