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Flashcards in Final Discussion Sheets Deck (102)
1

Phytonutrients are/are not a nutrient component of plant foods

ARE NOT

2

Fruits and vegetables have a protective effect against:

Cancer types all over the body

3

Fruits and vegetables preventative effects

They are nutrient dense

Displace saturated fat

High in phytonutrients

4

Human blood levels of retinol do/do not correlate with cancer risk

Do not

5

Antioxidants like B-carotene work by quenching free radicals so that they do not damage DNA and lead to cancer

true

6

B carotene was effective against cancer in smokers

false

7

Carotenoids may just be a marker for the real protective factors, such as phytochemicals, which may protect against cancer since plants are very chemically complex

8

Carcinogen

A chemical that damages DNA and initiates cancer

9

Why has stomach cancer decreased?

There are better food preservation to prevent spoilage (may contain carcinogens)

10

How long does carcinogenesis take place?

may take decades

11

Promotion stage

When a normal cell is transformed into a cancer cell

12

Angiogenesis

The formation of blood supply to the tumor

takes place during the progression stage

13

Treatment for cancer

Takes place during the progression stage, when tumor is detected

takes 10^9 cells for detection

14

Malignant tumors

only invasive tumor

15

Phytonutrients can interfere with any of the three stages of cancer development

16

Anti-hormones such as Genisten, Liganans, and Indoles decrease body levels of estrogen

TRUE

17

Hyperplasia

The increase in number of cells

18

Hypertrophy

The increase in cell size

19

Teratrogens, such as excessive retinol suppements and alcohol, during the first trimester can cause birth deffects

TRUE

20

Overweight mothers such gain how much weight during pregnancy

15-25 lbs compared to 25-25 for normal weight mothers

21

Protein, folate, iron, and calcium needs all increase during pregnancy

TRUE

22

Eclampsia

Results from an increase in b.p. brought on by edema during pregnancy

23

Cow's milk before 1 year

Too little CHO and fat, too high in proteins and minerals

24

Infant colic caused by what?

unknown reasons

25

What is the best strategy for cancer prevention?

Eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables

26

Extra calories for pregnancy are needed mostly during which trimester?

second and third

27

All of the following are barriers to breast-feeding EXCEPT?

Having to carry a lot of equipment when traveling

28

At what age does hyperplasia of the brain cease?

Eighteen months

29

The American Acaedmy of Pediatrics suggests that children can begin following heart-healthy, low-fat, low-cholesterol, diets after about....

Age 2

30

A soman's daily calorie needs from most to least

Lactating, pregnant, pre-pregnant

31

Individuals with low blood levels of Vitamin A are more likely to have cancer

FALSE

32

Progression step of carcinogenesis involves?

Angiogenesis - formation of blood supply to cells

Unregulated replication of cancer cells, creating a tumor

33

Nutrition-related teratogens

Retinol supplements

Alcohol

34

Pregnant vegetarians need to pay special attention to obtaining adequate intake of which of the following micronutrients?

Vitamin B-12, iron, calcium

35

Nutrition-related risk factors for maternal and infant mortality include...

Pica

Dieting or fasting for more than 12 hours

36

Your are most likely to consume nitrates and nitrosamines if you eat which of the following?

Bacon and cured meats

37

Which phytochemical is found in soy foods and what is its activity in the body?

Genistein; inhibits the binding of restrogen to receptors on the cell membrane

38

A pregnant woman's need for which of the following sets of nutrients shows the biggest increase?

Iron and folate

39

You are giving nutritional advice to a pregnant woman. She complains of heartburn and constipation. What is your advice?

These are normal symptoms of pregnancy due to the influence of placental hormones. Eat low-fat foods, remain upright after eating, and get plenty of fluids

Eat a diet high in fiber and try to maintain a moderate exercise regimen

40

How does human breast milk change during feeding

from low fat to high fat

41

The best ways to assess infant growth are

Height for age

Weight for height

42

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no solid foods for infants until what age

4-6 months

43

Comapring the nutrition needs of infantss with children, which is true?

The requirements for vitamins and minerals do not go down

44

Which types of foods are most often preferred by children?

Crisp, crunchy foods

Foods with mild flavors

45

Carcinogens result from inadequate nutrient intake

FALSE

46

The initiation of a cancer cell involves

Genetic damage

47

Phytochemicals that prevent cancer the the induction of higher levels of detoxification enzymes do so at which stage in cancer development

Initiation

Promotion

48

Three stages in the development of cancer

initiation, promotion, progression

49

Premature infants catch up in growth by about age

2-3 years

50

Under which condition should breastfeeding be avoided?

Maternal use of a medication that passes into breastmilk

51

How does malnutrition affect growth?

If hypertrophy is arrested, it is reversible

52

Phytonutrients

Non-nutrient components of plant foods

-not essential

-no deficiency symptoms

Play role in maintianing health

53

Nutrients

Specific chemicals essential and necessary

Body can't synthesize

Deficieny symptoms

54

Why do plant foods protect us against cancer?

Nutrient dense

Displacement of fat, saturated fat

Nutrients as protective factors

55

Vitamin A as protective factor

Retinol role in cell differentiation

Cancer cells undifferentiated

Protective in cell culture studies

Defiency increases cancer risk in animals

But, blood levels not correlated with cancer risk

56

Vitamin A precursors as protective factor

Blood levles of beta-carotene correlative with cancer risk

Beta-carotene hypothesis: protects without conversion to retnol

Power anti-oxidant

57

Anti-oxidant hypothesis

Free radical oxygen damages DNA

Oxidative damage to DNA causes cancer

Antioxidants quench free radicals

Block DNA damage

C, E

58

Carotenoids

<1/3 of US vitamin A intake comes from carotenoids

500 in nature

yellow/orange fruits and veggies have B carotene

Dark leefy greens: lutein

Tomatoes: lycopene

59

High carotenoid intake

Decreased cancer risk

60

Formation of cancer

Carcinogens-chemicals which damage DNA and initiate cancer

Industrial exposure - vinyl chloride (plastic furniture), asbestos, pesticides

Nitrates/nitrosamines: bacon and beer

Better preservation decreases cancer

61

Angiogensis occurs where?

Progression stage

Formation of new blood supply for the tumor

62

Estrogen and Cancer

Promotes breast, uterine, and ovarian cancers

63

Anti hormones

Genistein from soybeans

- binds estrogen receptor

64

Mixing of foods

May promote extensive contamination due to the nature of processing these foods (ground beef, bagged lettuce)

65

Global Food Network

May promote the transfer of foodborne illness due to the extensive availability of foods across the world

66

Chemicals/Contaminants

Found in plant products to prevent microbial growth and increase grwoing yield

67

Food poisoning/food borne illness

arise from the spoilage of food

68

Pasteurization

Has eliminated tuberculosis in our society

69

Thphoid/Cholera

Vitually non-existent in America due to the cleaning of our water supply

70

Camplylobacter

Found in birds and causes diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and cramps

Results from underbooking and cross-contamination

71

Norwalk like virus

Direction contamination of food - sick and doesnt wash hands

vomiting

72

Salmonella

Comes from the guts of birds, mammals, and reptiles

Diarrhea, fever, and cramping

73

E. Coli

A normal inhabitant of our guts but certain strains (O157:57) cause cramping, fever

Can lead to hemolytic uremia syndrome resulting in kidney failure

74

Listeria

May be detrimental to individuals who have an underdeveloped/compromised immune system

Infants, elderly, cancer, and HIV

75

Foodborne toxins

Produced by the bacteria which end up making you sick instead of the actual bacteria

76

otulism ( clostridium Botulinum)

One of the most deadly foodborne toxin leading to paralysis, severe nervous system damage, or death

77

Staphylococcus Aureus

A very common bacteria found on the skin but certain strains may lead to foodborne illness

78

Sources of foodborne ilness

Guts of animals

Improper manure compositing

organic food

Sprouts

Unpasteurized dairy products/ juice

Infected food handlers

79

Personal practices

the easiest and most efficient way to prevent foodborne illness

80

Ground beef and pork

160 degrees cooked

81

Chicken

165 degrees cooked

82

Intact pieces of beef

Can be cooked to 145 degrees because the contamination is found on the outside surface

83

Raw meat

Kept on the bottom of the refrigerator

Should  have a seperate cutting board

84

Temperature danger zone

40-140

Fridge kept at 34-38

85

Food additives

Colors

Flavors

Preservatives

Modified food starch

Guar gums

Carrageenan

Vitamins and minerals (fortification)

86

Processes foods

decreased- fiber potassium and trace minerals

increased- salt, sugar, and fat

87

Bisphenol A (BPA)

A chemical contaminant found in plastic that leeches into food and water and has estrogenic type effects

88

Melamine

A deliberate milk additive used in China to increase the nitrogen concentration to claim higher concentrations of protein

89

Benefits of organic foods

No chemical damage to environment, improved water supply

Use about 1/3 less energy than conventional methods

90

animal products typically do not have pesticide residue

True

91

Dioxine and PCB

Contaminants that are typically found in the water supply including rainfall and may accumulate in larger fish = bioaccmulation

92

Antibotics

Typically used to prevent disease and improve growth

Not found in meat for sale 

93

Water content

The water content of food increases the weight of food significantly

94

Air freight

Most expensive and least efficient way to transport food

95

Ships (water)

More efficient are reduce costs

96

Forzen fish are more economical compared to fresh fish because they reduce transportation costs

TRUE

97

Access to local foods can be achieved through:

Farmers markets

Food co-ops

Community supported agriculture

Your own garden

98

Sustainable agriculture

Utilizes practices that include renewable resources, soil conservation, and fewer chemical inputs

99

Legumes

A great resource to increase nitrogen concentration in the soil to promote protein synthesis in plants to make them grow

100

Efficient animal production

Grass fed

Free range feeding

101

Fossil fuels

limit human labor leading to obesity and diabetes

102