Chapter 13 - Pregnancy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Pregnancy Deck (43)
1

conception

The joining of the sperm and the egg to form an embryo

The beginning of pregnancy

2

Fertility

Production of babies

3

Embryo

The fertilized egg resulting from conception, and developing into a fetus

4

Congenital anomaly

A change from normal due to genetic damage or changes in gene expression

aka: birth defect

5

Birth defect

Congenital anomaly

6

Fetus

An unborn human infant of more that eight weeks age

7

Miscarriage

Spontaneous abortion of the fetus

Often caused by a congenital anomaly

Occurring less than 20 weeks into the pregnancy

8

Teratrogen

An agent that damages genetic material or otherwise causes a congenital anomaly

9

Infertility

Lack of production of babies

Result of high/low body fat

10

Amenorrhea

A lack of regular menstrual cycles

11

Poor iron status = 

increases risk of early delivery

Iron needs double in pregnancy*

12

Oligomenorrhea

Having fewer than 6 menstrual cycles per year

13

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Can cause scarring of the fallopian tubes, blocking the passage of the egg to the uterus

14

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Seen in obese women

Marked by high testosterone levels with abnormal body hair and acne

Outer layer of ovaries become hard and think preventing ovulation, resulting in infertility

15

Ovaries

The source of eggs in the female reproductive system

16

Ovulation

The release of eggs from the ovaries

17

High blood sugar levels in the first two months of pregnancy

are teratrogenic and double or triple the risk of birth defects

18

Isoflavones

Found in soybeans, are very weak estrogens

Lengthen the time between menstrual periods and make it take longer for conception to occur

19

Low intakes of zinc in males

reduce fertility

20

Hypogonadism

Delayed or reduced development of sexual organs and secondary sex characteristics

Result of a low intake of zinc

21

Baby measurements at birth

7.5 pounds

20 inches long

22

Trimester

A third of a pregnancy

23

Spina bifida

A failure of the spinal column to form properly, leading to difficulties in gait or mental retardation

deficiency of folic acid

24

Placenta

Organ that transfers nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, removes wastes, and produces hormones

25

Hyperplasia

Growth by an increase in the number of cells

26

Hypertrophy

Growth by an increase in the size of cells

27

Edema

Abnormal accumulation of extracellular fluid

Weight gain should be higher for people with edema

28

Pre-eclampsia

A condition that potentially can lead up to eclampsia

29

Anabolism

metabolism of synthesis

storing energy as fat - first half of pregnancy

30

Catabolism

Metabolism of breakdown

second half of pregnancy - stores are feeding the infant

31

Proteinuria

protein in the urine - abnormal event

32

Eclampsia

A condition of later pregnancy involving high blood pressure that may lead to convulsions, kidney damage, stillbirth, and even death

33

gestational diabetes

Diabetes beginning in and usually ending after pregnancy

34

Ketones

Products of fat metabolism harmful to the fetus in high concentrations

35

anovulation

The stage of not ovulating-not releasing eggs

36

Prolactin

Hormone that stimulates milk production

37

Oxytocin

Hormone that stimulates letdown

38

Letdown

The reflex that releases milk from the milk gland into the milk duct

39

Contraindictations

A medical reason against some action

40

Engorgement

When the breast is overfilled with milk

41

Mastitis

Breast infection

42

Infancy

The period of birth throug the first year of life

characterized by rapid growth and development

43

Renal solute load

The amont of material the kidneys have to excrete in the urine