Energy Balance and Body Weight - Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Energy Balance and Body Weight - Chapter 7 Deck (49)
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Thrifty metabolism

A genetically determined, energy efficient metabolism, requiring few calories for daily activities.

In an enviornment of scarce food, such as found in prehistoric times, a thrifty metabolism allowed the storage of seasonally abudant food as body fat for use in times of food shortage.

In a modern environment with a large surplus of calories, a thrifty metabolism contributes to the development of obesity.

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Anabolic

pertaining to anabolism

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Catabolic

pertaining to catabolism

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Anabolism

Body processes that create more complex chemical compounds for energy storage or for the synthesis of tissue

seen in weight gain

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Catabolism

Body processes that break down complex chemical compounds for energy release or for tissue breakdown

in weight loss we are hoping to stimulate catabolism

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Where we see anabolism

In infant growth, pregnancy, weight gain, and muscle building

Protein synthesis, triglyceride synthesis, gluconeogenisis

Insulin = hormone that directs anabolism

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Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

High energy chemical compound used in the body to transfer energy from nutrients to various life processes

energy currency of the body

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3 ways we expend energy:

Basal metabolism

Physical activity

Thermic effect of food (TEF)

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Basal metabolism

Body processes involving involuntary activities only.

Such as breathing, heartbeat, and chemical reactions

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Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

Rate at which basal metabolism occurs

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Thermic Effect of food (TEF)

Energy expended in digesting, absorving, transportin ,storing, metabolizing, and otherwise handling food.

Amounts to about 10 percent of ingested calories

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Resting Energy Expenditure (REE)

The day's total energy expenditure through basal metabolism only

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Factors that increase BMR

Increased lean body mass

Regular or frequent meals

Exposure to cold temperatures

Fever

Caffeine

Stress

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

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Factors that decrease BMR

Loss of lean body mass

Meal skipping, dieting, or food restriction

Starvation or fasting

Exposure to warm temperatures

Aging

Female gender

Sleep

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Physical activity

Energy expenditure through voluntary physical effort

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Harris-Benedict equation for adult men

REE = 66+ 13.7W + 5.0H -6.8A

W = weight in kg

H = height in cm

A = age in years

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Harris-Benedict equation for adult women

REE = 655 + 9.6W + 18H - 4.7A

W = weight in kg

H = height in cm

A = age in years

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Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)

The sum of energy expenditure through REE, physical activity, and TEF

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As percent total energy expenditure (TEE) from BMR decreases...

Percent of energy expenditure from physical activity (AEE) increases

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Which is the most variable component of total energy expenditure?

Activity energy expenditure (AEE)

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What does Thermic effect of food (TEF) depend on?

Type of food eaten (pure protein will induce a higher thermic effect than fat)

Quantity ingested

Whether a meal is followed by exercise, which increases the thermic effect of food

*TEF of obese people ie less than TEF of normal-weight people

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Body Mass Index (BMI)

A heigh-weight relationship used to assess obesity.

Equal to weight in kilograms over height in meters squared

weight (kg)

------------------

height (m) squared

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prevalence

The number of cases of a condition in a given population or the proportion of the population suffering from that condition

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Relative risk

The increase in risk seen in a high risk group over that seen in the lowest risk group

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Total body mass

Sum of lean tissue mass and fat mass

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Body Impedance Analysis (BIA)

A method of measuring body composition utilizing the fact that lean tissue, with a high water content, conducts electricity relatively well, while fat tisue, with a low water content, conducts electricity poorly

If a mild electric current is passed through the body, the body's impedance, or resistance to current flow, indirectly indicates its fat content

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Three fat depots

Subcutaneous fat

Visceral fat

Intramuscular fat

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Subcutaneous fat

The body fat depot found right under the skin

when you pinch your skin

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Visceral or abdominal fat

The body fat depot found inside the abdominal cavity

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Intramuscular fat

The body fat depot found interspersed within the muscle fibers

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Android obesity

"apple shape"

A pattern of body fat distribution in which most body fat is carried abdominally

more often in men

higher risk of hypertension, type II, and heart disease

greater health problems of the two obesities

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Gynecoid obesity

"pear shape"

A pattern of body fat distribution in which most body fat is carried on the hips and thighs

more often in women

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Hip to waist ratio

A measure used to define android obesity

A value of greater than 1:1:! is considered to indicate such

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Set point theory

The notion that one's body tends to gravitate to a particular weight

governed by the hormone leptin - diminishes appetite 

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How is body fat stored?

Adipose tissue

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Amenorrhea

A cessation of normal menstruation caused by inadequate estrogen levels resulting from excessively low body fat.

Causes bone mineral loss leading to weakend bones

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Female athlete triad

The bombinatino of low bone density, amenorrhea, and eating disorder sometimes seen in female athletes with very little body fat

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Adipose's other important functions

Reproduction

Shock absorption

Thermal insulation

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Two ways adipose tissue grows

Increase in number of cells (hyperplasia)

Increase in cell size (hypertrophy)

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Hyperplasia

Tissue growth through an increase in cell number

weight gain through hyperplasia is harder to lose

occurs more in growing children

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Hypertrophy

Tissue growth through an increase in cell size

adults gain weight through hypertrphy up to a point

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Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCD)

diets less than 1200 kcals per day

two variations: extreme restrictions using normal foods, liquid diets

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Bariatric

Of or pertaining to body weight

gastric bypass operations, stomach stapling

i.e. bariatric surgery

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3 drugs on market for weight loss

sibutrimine - supress appetite and increase metabolism

phentermine

orilstat - blocks fat absorption

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Drugs never indicated for weight loss

Diuretics - cause water loss and electrolyte imbalance

Laxatives - rebound constipation on withdrawl

Amphetamines - addictive and dangerous class of illegal drugs

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The way to lose weight

Go into negative energy balance

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  What generates mot of our metabolism?

lean body mass, including muscle

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Dieter's Dilemma

The more weight you lose, the less energy you need, until your requirements get so low.

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