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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (40)
1

food chain

  • the best representation of relationships in the natural world

2

essential

  • the nutrient is necessary for life
  • the nutirent cannot be synthesized by the body

3

macronutrient

  • nutrient needed in relatively large quantities
  • the nutrients we feel hungry for and fill us up
  • three: protein, carbohydrate, and fat (lipid)

4

carbohydrate

  • main purpose is to supply energy
  • the only fuel that the brain can use

5

simple carbohydrates

  • are sugars

6

complex carbohydrates

  • include starch and fiber
  • made up of polymers of sugars

7

polymer

  • a molecule consisting of a repeating chain of one smaller molecule
    • starch is a polymer of a sugar

8

calories

  • a unit of energy

9

Protein

  • makes up most of the dry weight of the body
  • used to form muscle and connective tissue, bone and skin
  • example: meats,fish, poultry, beans, dairy products, and nuts

10

enzyme

  • a protein that regulates body processes through its role in controlling chemical reactions
  • a protein

11

energy is found in 3 macronutrients:

  1. carboydrate
  2. lipid
  3. protein

12

micronutrients

  • nutrients needed in relatively small quantities.
  • Vitamins and minerals

13

two groups of vitamins

  1. soluble in fat
    1. A, D, E, K
  2. soluble in water
    1. Vitamin C, thiamin

14

Vitamins are organic

  • which means they contain the element carbon

15

Minerals are inorganic

  • they contain no carbon

16

2 Types of Minerals

  1. Major minerals
  2. Trace minerals

17

Major minerals

  • needed in relatively large amounts although less than macronutrients

18

Trace minerals

  • needed in very tiny amounts

19

phytochemicals

  • a large group of chemicals produced by plants, many of which have physiologic effects on the human body
  • important for chronic disease prevention
  • they are not considered nutrients because they are not essential.

20

Anthropometric data

  • heigh and weight
  • sometimes peercent body fat
  • help asses growth or body weight

21

Biochemical

  • blood tests, urine tests
  • examples: blood sugar, blood cholestoral, and hemoglobin

22

Clinical data

  • amiograms, electrodiagrams
  • evaluate heart disease

23

Dietary data

  • records of what you eat

24

anecdotal

  • evidence of an individual nature, without rigorous examination

25

placebo

  • a drug or other substance with no inherent treatment value which affects an individual through the psychological power of their belief in its efficacy

26

hypothesis

  • an untested working assumption that serves as the starting point of scientific investigation

27

experimental group

  • in an experiment, the group that receives whatever treatment is being studied
  • also known as the treatment group

28

control group

  • in an experiment, the group that receives no treatment, used as a comparison for the experimental group

29

outcome

  • the measure being studied in an experiment, such as incidence of colds or long cancer, as a result of some exposure, such as Vitamin C or smoking

30

case studies

  • anecdotal evidence published in a scientific journal

31

epidemiological study

  • a natural experiment that a population conducts on itself probably without knowing it

32

exposure

  • the hypotheitcal cause of an outcome
  • ex. lung cancer may result from exposure to tobacco smoke

33

correlatioin

  • the relationship between two associated things
  • correlation does not prove cause and effect
  • fire and smoke are associated, not correlated

34

confounder

  • a factor associated with some outcome that confuses or coufounds the determination of true cause and effect

35

double blind

  • a study in which neither the researcher nor the study subject knows which treatment the subject is getting

36

generalizability

  • the degree to which one finding can be assumed to apply to some other group or situation

37

What are the safest sources of nutrition information

  • scientific journals that have a panel of experts

38

ethnography

  • the study of indigenous human cultural and ethnic groups

39

indigenous

  • having originated in a particular geographic area, as in indigenous, or native people

40