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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (86)
1

What are muscle, organs and skin mostly made out of?

protein

2

How do we store energy

As fat

3

What is the best feul for our bodies

carbohydrates

4

What should most meals be based around?

  • starches
  • ex. grains, beans, and legumes, pasta, oatmeal, rice

5

photosynthesis

  • the chemical reaction in which plants capture the sun's energy and store it as carbohydrate

6

carbohydrate

  • one of the macronutrients
  • composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

7

sugar

  • the simplest form of carbohydrate, from which other carbohydrates are made

8

starch

  • complex carbohydrate
  • assembled from chains of glucose
  • found in plants

9

fiber

  • a complex carbohydrate similar to starch, but not absorbed by humans because the monosaccharides are joined by chemical bonds that the human digestive tract cannot break

10

simple sugars

  • the simplest carbohydrate
  • includes both mono- and disaccharides

11

monosaccharide

  • a simple sugar consiting of a single ring structure and six carbon atoms

12

glucose

  • a monosaccharide with a six-sided ring structure
  • oxygen atom at one apex
  • tastes sweet
  • found in fruits, honey, sweet corn, and the bloodstream
  • blood sugar that supplies energy to body

13

foods that get their sweet taste from sugar

  1. fruits
  2. candy
  3. baked goods

14

how are carbohydrates formed?

  • joining simple sugar molecules together with chemical bonds

15

Longest carbohydrate

  • starch
  • found in pasta, bread, rice and potatoes

16

General formula for Carbohydrates

  • CnH2nOn
  • equal number of carbon and oxygen
  • twice the amount of Hydrogen

17

Ending for a carbohydrate

  • -ose
  • ex: glucose, fructose, and sucrose

18

Fructose

  • a monosaccharide with a five-sided ring structure
  • 6 carbon atoms with 1 oxygen atom at an apex
  • 2 carbons and remaining oxygen outside ring

19

Where is fructose found?

  • very sweet
  • found in fruit, honey, and in sucrose
  • enters bloodstream rapidly and is usually used to make body fat

20

Galactose

  • a monosaccharide with a six-sided ring structure
  • similar to glucose
  • a part of lactose

21

lactose

  • a dissacharide occuring in milk products
  • double sugar
  • contains glucose and galactose molecule
  • found in mammary glands in breast milk and dairy products
  • only carbohydrate that is from animals...all others from plants

22

lactose intolerance

  • intestinal discomfort caused by inability to digest lactose
  • when people have trouble breaking lactose apart

23

disaccharide

  • a simple sugar composed of two monosaccharides joined together
  • double sugars
  • occur as two monosaccharides joined together by a chemical bond

24

sucrose

  • a dissacharide formed from glucose and fructose
  • found in crystalline sweetener used in cooking
  • comes from sugar cane and sugar beets, fruits, honey and mape sugar

25

maltose

  • a disaccharide formed from two glucose molecules
  • formed when plants break down starch during sprouting or when we break starch during digestion
  • found in barley malt syrup to keep baked goods moist

26

fermentation

  • a process by which microorganisms, such as yest or bacteria, convert sugars into alcohol or acid
  • yest can ferment maltose into alcohol

27

complex carbohydrates

  • carbohydrates made of polymers of simple sugars
  • includes: starch and fiber
  • also known as polysaccharides

28

oligosaccharides

  • carbohydrate made up of small strings of carbohydrate molecules
  • ex. raffinose and stachyose -> found in legumes
  • our colon digests them and sometimes produces gas

29

legume

  • member of a botanical family capable of fixing nitrogen from the air.
  • Characterized by high protein content, high fiber, high carbohydrate, and low fat.

30

polymer

  • a chemical compound formed from multiple units of a simpler substance assembled in a repetitive fashion

31

maltodextrins

  • short glucose polymers produced by digestion of starch
  • used as mild sweetener and carbohydrate source in spor drinks and other foods
  • also called dextrins

32

Polysaccharide

  • carbohydrates made up of polymerized simple sugars
  • includes starch and fiber
  • also known as complex carbohydrate

33

Common starches

  • amylose and amylopectin
    • made up of glucose molecules joined by chemical bonds into long strands

34

amylose

  • common form of starch
  • relatively linear structure
  • straight with very few branches

35

amylopectin

  • common form of starch
  • branch structure
  • branches allow it to hold water so makes for a good food thickner

36

grain

  • seed
  • usually from a member of the grass family
  • high in carbohydrate with substantial protein, and little fat
  • good sources of starch
    • ex. wheat, oats, rice, corn, and barley

37

2 good sources of starch

  • grains
    • wheats, oats, rice, corn, and barley
  • legumes
    • beans, lentils, and split peas
  • starchy vegetables
    • potatoes, sweet potatoes

38

glycogen

  • complex carbohydrate assembled from chains of glucose
  • similar to starch
  • found in liver and muscles

39

cellulose

  • a fiber consisting of gluclose polymers
  • indigestible to humans but digestible to ruminant animals

40

ruminant

  • a member of the family including: cattle, sheep, and goats
  • possess a digestive tract capable of breaking down cellulose

41

Dietary fiber

  • indigestible carbohydrate
  • occurs only in plants
  • tough protein

42

How is fiber grouped?

  • By whether it dissolves in water or not

43

Insoluble fiber

  • Fiber that does not dissolve in water
  • absorbs water, swells, and adds bulk to intestinal contents
  • ex. wheat bran
  • ex. cellulose and hemi-cellulose

44

soluble fiber

  • fiber that dissolves in water
  • makes intestinal contents more viscous
    • thick or gel-like

45

Gel

  • a liquid thickened by the addition of a dissolved solid, such as soluble fiber
  • ex. jellies and puddings

46

hemi-cellulose

  • an insoluble fibr similar to cellulose

47

lignin

  • an insoluble fiber that is not a polysaccharide
  • found in the woody portion of plants

48

What are good sources of insoluble fiber?

  • Whole grains

49

Pectin

  • a soluble fiber used to make jellies
  • made from a form of galactose

50

True or False: Soluble fibers are just as indigestible as insoluble fibers.

TRUE

51

Beta-glucans

  • a soluble fiber found in oats
  • glucose polymer
  • creamy texture of oatmeal comes fro these

52

Gums and mucilages

  • forms of soluble fiber
  • used to add body to foods
  • ex. carrageenan - from seaweed

53

Food sources of soluble fibers include:

  • oats
  • barley
  • rice
  • legumes (beans)
  • and fruits

54

How many calories does digestible carbohydrates yeild?

  • 4 kilocalories = same as protein
  • fat is 9 kilocalories

55

Brain cells use what for energy?

  • glucose
  • also redcells depend on glucose

56

Amino Acids

  • the basic subunits from which proteins are made

57

Protein-sparing

  • Carbohydrate allows us to use our protein as protein

58

adipose

  • the tissue that stores body fat

59

Substrate

  • the substance an enzyme breaks down

60

Lactase

  • enzyme which splits lactose

61

Amylase

  • enzyme which splits amylose and amylopectin

62

Dextrins

  • short glucose polymers produced by starch
  • used as mild sweeteners and as a carb source in sports drinks and other foods
  • maltodextrins

63

Mucosa

  • cells lining the intestinal tract and responsible for absorption of nutrients
  • produces enzymes that break down dissacharides

64

culture

  • to ferment foods
  • inoculating dairy products with microorganisms (yeast, bacteria, mold) and letting them partially digest the lactose for us. 

65

What does the brain and red blood cells use for energy?

  • glucose

66

homeostasis

  • the tendency of living organisms to maintain a constant environment, such as a constant temperature, pH, and concentrations of solutes

67

When glucose levels fall below normal...

  • liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose and releases into bloodstream

68

gluconeogenesis

  • the process by which the body forms glucose from amino acids

69

glucagon

  • hormone which raises blood sugar by triggering glycogen breakdown and release and by gluconeogenesis

70

epinephrine

  • hormone released in response to stress or perceived danger
  • raises blood sugar
  • flight or fight hormone

71

insulin

  • hormone released by the pancreas
  • lowers blood sugar by driving glucose into cells

72

hypoglycemia

  • low blood sugar

73

post-prandial hypoglycemia

  • person overreacts to glucose presence and produces too much insulin 

74

diabetes mellitus

  • disorder characterized by high blood sugar

75

Type I diabetes

  • the pancreas stops producing insulin so there is too much glucose present

76

3 signs of diabetes

  • polyphagia
    • excessive hunger
  • polydipsia
    • excessive thirst
  • polyuria
    • excessive urination

77

Type II diabetes

  • adult-onset
  • related to obesity
  • treatment: lose weight to get blood sugar levels under control
  • insulin resistance

78

gestational diabetes

  • insulin resistance
  • occurs during pregnancy
  • likely to develop Type II after pregnancy

79

glycemic effect

  • the ability of a carbohydrate-containing food to raise blood sugar

80

Glycemic index

  • a measure of glycemic effect
  • higher the faster it raises blood sugars

81

nutrient density

  • a measure of the amount of nutrients found in a given number of calories for a particular food

82

caries

  • cavities in the teeth caused by acid produced from carbohydrates by mouth bacteria

83

peristalsis

  • the rhythmic contraction of bands of muscle ringing the digestive tract that keeps food moving through the tract

84

diverticular disease

  • outpouching of the intestine caused by high pressures due to a low fiber diet

85

ketosis

  • an abnormally acidic state in the body caused by an accumulation of the breakdon products of fat utilization, seen in very low carbohydrate diets, starvation, and diebetes

86