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Flashcards in Practice Exam Deck (122)
1

Cell Membranes are composed primarily of what nutrient?

Lipids

2

What unit is a measure of energy?

kilocalories (kcal)

3

Substances that can directly supply energy to the body:

Alcohol, CHO, lipid, and protein

4

Minerals participate...

In chemical reactions related to acid-base balance

5

Anecdotal evidence is....

Useful in developing questions from which to formulate hypotheses

6

Human studies in nutrition are...

  • high in generalizability and low in control

7

Randomization in human clinical trials is necessary in order to...

Control for differences in the sample population being studied

8

An experiment designed to test how a particular nutrient affects atherosclerosis in humans, and which includes an experimental (or treatment) group and a control group is called

a human intervention trial

9

The RDAs were designed to meet the needs of

98% of all Americans

10

The statement that best describes the Food Guide Pyramid is:

It provides guidelines for proportionality.

11

Which of the following is not one of the USDA's "Dietary Guidelines for Americans?"

Choose a diet low in artificial sweeteners, such as apartame.

12

The Food Guide Pyramid was created by

the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)

13

Food labels give nutritional information about a food based on

One serving

14

Indigenous New World cultures which have used corn as a staple treat it with lime (calcium carbonate). This has the effect of

increasing the availability of niacin.

15

No crop produces more kcals/acre than

Corn

16

Which dietary component has shown the least variation (as a percentage of total kcals) throughout human history?

Protein

17

Saliva contains _______________ to begin chemical digestion of starch.

Amylase

18

The main function of the stomach is to

store food for slow release into the intestine.

19

Water is mainly reabsorbed from food by the

large intestine

20

The production of bile is one of its most important digestive functions.

liver

21

Fiber generally affects the digestive system by

decreasing transit time of food in the gut.

22

Muscle tissue is ________ percent water.

72

23

Water is _____ per cent of total body weight in an adult.

50-60

24

Acid-base reactions take place in water because of water's

tendency to dissociate into hydrogen and hydroxyl ions.

25

Which is the most acidic of the body's secretions?

gastric juice

26

In adults, hot weather and/or strenuous exercise can cause sweating and water losses of 1-3 liters per hour. Which of the following statements is most applicable to this situation?

A person in this situation is at risk for dehydration because they cannot absorb as much water in an hour as they may lose.

27

Performance can decrease with the loss of what percentage of body weight as water?

2-3%

28

Which of the following is not a diuretic?

Gatorade

29

Plants synthesize CHO in the process of photosynthesis. Which statement about photosynthesis is true?

oxygen is a product

30

Which of the following is NOT a complex carbohydrate?

maltose

31

Which list contains only monosaccharides?

glucose, fructose, galactose

32

The effects of soluble fiber include:

decreases blood cholesterol

33

Good food sources of soluble fiber include

oats, barley, beans/legumes, and fruits

34

Two types of CHO can induce the production in the human body of the enzymes required to break them down, if consumed regularly. What are they?

raffinose and stachyose (found in beans)

35

Which sample ingredient list describes a product high in fiber?

wheat flour, enriched flour, corn starch, maltose

36

Mechanisms to raise blood glucose include:

hormonal

37

White sugar has been accused of causing various problems. For which of the following conditions is there the best evidence that sugar comsumption is an important cause?

dental caries

38

Which of the following statements about conditions in which blood sugar is not regulated in a normal way is/are correct?

1) Type I diabetes (more likely in people under 30) occurs when an inadequate amount of insulin is produced by the pancreas.
  2) Type II diabetes (more likely in overweight adults) occurs when the body's cells are unable to respond to insulin normally.
  3) Reactive hypoglycemia occurs when a normal CHO intake stimulates excessive production of insulin.

39

Choose the correct combination of hormone/site of production/action.

glucagon/pancreas/increase blood glucose

40

Concentrated sugars such as white sugar, brown sugar, honey, maple syrup, and corn syrup ______________.

 dilute the nutritional quality of the diet because they provide empty calories

41

A bowl of cooked brown rice would contain which of the following types of carbohydrates?

3) digestible CHO
  4) indigestible CHO

42

Food shorages ________________ in most indigenous, pre-industrial cultures.

happened to varying degrees

43

Diseases of affluence tend to be

chronic diseases

44

Which are nutrients needed in microscopic amounts?

Vitamins and minerals

45

Which is not a food production strategy employed in traditional or indigenous diets?

shopping

46

Which group is likely to eat a high fat diet?

arctic hunters

47

Select the statement that best describes the value of the Dietary Guidelines.

a. Dietary Guidelines suggest general changes in intake of some foods and nutrients that would be healthful for
most Americans

48

Food shortages ___________ in most indigenous, pre-industrial cultures.

c. happened to varying degrees

49

What has the greatest impact in terms of persons' ability to handle ethanol?

d. Lean body mass and total body water

50

4. A protein that controls, regulates, or promotes a chemical reaction under conditions found in the body, that is not
itself consumed in the reaction, and that does not act systemically through the bloodstream is a(n) _________

c. enzyme

51

What are the negative consequences discussed in class of using excessive amounts of concentrated sugars such as
those found in white sugar, brown sugar, honey, maple syrup, corn syrup, etc.?

d. They will dilute the nutritional quality of the diet

52

Cell membranes are composed primarily of which nutrient?

Lipid

53

If you ate one serving of chips that contained 9 grams of fat per
serving, how many fat calories would you be consuming in your snack?

d. 81 kcal

54

Which of the following statements does NOT follow the Dietary
Guidelines?

e. Avoid sugars, salt, & sodium

55

How has our current diet evolved from that of our ancestors?

a. higher fat content
b. lower starch content
c. higher refined sugar content
d. lower fiber content
e. all of the above

56

As societies industrialize and grow more affluent, they are most likely to see an increase in

c. chronic disease

57

Through the course of our evolution, the dietary pattern the human body has been exposed to for the longest
period of time is that of ________ peoples.

b. Hunter-Gatherer

58

Anecdotal evidence is

b. useful in developing questions from which to formulate hypotheses.

59

An experiment designed to test how a particular nutrient affects atherosclerosis (heart disease) in humans, and
which includes an experimental (or treatment) group and a control group can be called

b. a human intervention trial

60

Food labels give nutritional information about a food based on

b. one serving

61

Indigenous New World cultures which have used corn as a staple treat it with lime (calcium carbonate.) This has
the effect of

b. increasing the bioavailability of niacin.

62

According to data presented in class, which dietary component has shown the least variation throughout human
history?

b. protein

63

What type of study can be defined as the observation of the outcomes of a natural experiment conducted on a
population by itself?

a. epidemiological study

64

In intervention studies, a method of making the treatment and control groups as similar as possible (for example,
in terms of weight, age, and gender), is:

c. randomization

65

Patterns of human disease have changed dramatically over the last 200 years or so, and the change in our diets has
been theorized to be partly responsible. Why might this be so?

a. Overall consumption is higher relative to physical activity.
b. Humans have not had sufficient time to adapt to the “modern” diet.

66

Diseases of poverty are generally considered to include all of the following except

b. chronic disease

67

If you were to drink a glass of water without taking any food, which of the following would be the site of greatest
water absorption?

c. small intestine

68

The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) table

c. sets nutrient recommendations at levels higher than most healthy people actually need

69

Which is the correct statement about the digestive secretion and its function?

a. Bile: a substance used only in the digestion of proteins.
b. Enzymes: lubricants that protect the lining of the GI tract.
c. Hydrochloric acid: substance used only in the digestion of lipids.
d. Mucus: protein that speeds up the rate of various biochemical reactions including digestion.
e. None of the above

70

Four foods supply varying amounts of energy but all contain 3 mg of iron. Which one has the highest nutrient
density for iron?

a. food w = 100 kcal

71

Choose the sugar/type/source combination which is correct.

e. lactose/disaccharide/animal

72

Which option names 3 disaccharides?

d. sucrose, maltose, lactose

73

Which organ most prefers CHO as its energy source?

c. brain

74

Which statement is correct about the body’s normal handling of carbohydrate.

a. The digestion of disaccharides occurs primarily in the small intestine.

75

Glycogen is formed and stored in the liver and muscles when

c. excessive glucose is present in the blood.

76

If you are generally increasing the fiber in your diet to get your intake into the range recommended by US experts,
what else should you increase?

d. water

77

Which type of study can prove a relationship of cause and effect most convincingly?

d. clinical trial

78

The major site of alcohol removal is the

a. liver

79

Which type of study matches two individuals in order to see how their different exposure levels to some supposed
disease-causing agent affects their likelihood of getting the disease?

a. case-control study

80

Moderate alcohol intake does NOT increase the risk of which disease?

d. heart disease

81

Which types of study are observational in nature?

a. epidemiological

82

In which type of study would the experimenter need to control for the placebo effect?

e. human clinical trial

83

Which is LEAST likely to be a consideration in human clinical trials?

a. generalizability

84

Lactase and sucrase are produced by cells of the

b. mucosa

85

39. Congeners

a. are substances other than alcohol found in alcoholic beverages
b. like alcohol, may also have effects on the body
c. have no effect on the body
d. both a and b
e. both a and c

86

Which of these leading causes of death is NOT related to diet?

e. pneumonia and influenza

87

Which is true of the enrichment process for grain products?

c. some of the micronutrients lost in processing have been restored

88

Which secretion does NOT match its source?

d. lipase - liver

89

What is the function of bile?

c. emulsify fats

90

Which stimulates peristalsis?

a. dietary fiber

91

Which are usually the best sources of carbohydrate?

d. plant foods

92

Digestion of starches occurs in which organ(s)?

a. mouth
b. stomach
c. small intestine
d. both b and c
e. both a and c

93

Which is a typical response of the body to blood glucose?

Excessive fall in blood glucose triggers the release of glucagon

94

An acceptable amount of added sugar in one’s diet is around _____ percent of total calories

a. 0
b. 10

95

A person with Type 1 diabetes is most likely to receive

a. insulin by injection

96

A failure of the mucus barrier in the stomach can result in

a. ulcers

97

What are the three most basic uses to which nutrients are put?
1. Contribute materials for building body substance
2. Provide energy
3. Serve as regulators of metabolic reactions
4. Detoxify chemicals that could threaten health
5. Kill microorganisms that could make you sick

1. Contribute materials for building body substance
2. Provide energy
3. Serve as regulators of metabolic reactions

98

Which is true about using the scientific method (SM)?

a. The beginning involves noticing something about how the world seems to work and asking questions about
it.

99

Which are nutrients needed in microscopic amounts?

a. vitamins and minerals

100

Which are most likely diseases associated with poverty?

a. chronic diseases like cancer and heart disease
b. nutritional deficiencies
c. infectious disease
d. a and b
e. b and c

101

Which substances, though they themselves contain no calories, are involved in the release of energy from
energy containing nutrients?

d. vitamins

102

If you ate one serving of chips that contained 9 grams of fat per
serving, how many fat calories would you be consuming in your snack?

d. 81 kcal

103

Currently, the leading causes of death in the US are most directly related to consumption of

b. excessive amounts of macronutrients

104

The food guide pyramid recommends 6 ounces per day of which food group for a diet of approximately 2000
kcal?

c. grains

105

Beans and legumes belong to which group of the food guide pyramid?

a. vegetables
b. fruits
c. grains
d. meat and beans
e. both a and d

106

Which of the following is a chronic disease?

d. diabetes

107

Which has enzymes present?

a. mouth
b. stomach
c. small intestine
d. a and b
e. all of the above

108

Which contains large quantities of bacteria?

a. large intestine

109

Which organ has the primary function of water reabsorption from food?

d. large intestine

110

Which organ is the primary site of nutrient absorption?

c. small intestine

111

Which is a source of glucose obtainable from animals?

b. lactose

112

Which is the fiber-containing component of wheat?

a. bran

113

Which is composed of glucose units?

a. maltose
b. amylose
c. glycogen
d. a and b
e. all of the above

114

Which is NOT a source of soluble fiber?

a. pectin
b. beans
c. lignin
d. guar gum
e. carageenan

115

Which statement is FALSE concerning fiber?

a. Soluble fiber reduces blood cholesterol.
b. Insoluble fiber increases intestinal bulk.
c. Soluble fiber is split by enzymes of the intestinal villi.
d. Insoluble fiber speeds transit time.
e. Soluble fiber slows carbohydrate absorption.

116

Which form of carbohydrate is most likely to be used directly by the body’s cells as energy?

a. glucose

117

Which statement does NOT describe Type I diabetes?

c. Symptoms are very subtle.

118

A disaccharidase insufficiency is most likely to cause lactose intolerance in

a. adults

119

Which stimulates peristalsis?

a. dietary fiber

120

Which is NOT a complex carbohydrate?

a. starch
b. galactose
c. glycogen
d. dietary fiber
e. polysaccharide

121

Digestion of starches occurs in which organ(s)?

a. mouth
b. stomach
c. small intestine
d. both b and c
e. both a and c

122