Chapter 11 - Micronutrients Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Micronutrients Deck (84)
1

Two types of micronutrients

Vitamins

Minerals

2

Calories (vitamins and minerals)

Vitamins are noncaloric

3

Vitamins are

organic - contain element carbon

4

Minerals are

inorganic - no carbon

5

Sources of vitamins

Both plant and animal food sources

6

How are vitamins gouped?

By solubility (some disolve in water, others in fat)

7

Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamin C

B vitamins = thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid (folate), vitamin B-12 (cobalamin), vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), biotin, and pantothenic acid

excreted in urine - toxicity is hard

not stored in body

8

Fat-soluble vitamins

Vitamins A (retinol), D, E, and K

Store it - limited capacity to excrete

Vitamin A = most common deficiency

9

Minerals are product of

cosmological processes

Plants and animals pick them up

10

Divalent cation

An ion with a double positive charge

Ex. iron, clacium, zinc, and copper

11

Bioavailability

The degree to which a nutrient is absorbed in digestion

12

Phytic acid (phytates)

Phosphorous compound found in some plant foods which will reduce mineral bioavailability

13

Oxalic acid

A compound found in some fruits and vegetables that reduces calcium absorption

14

Tannins

Reduce iron absorption

found in tea

15

Acid

increases the solubility of minerals

16

Presence of MFP factor (Meat-Fish-Poultry)

increases the absorption of plant forms of iron dramatically

17

Major minerals

Components of bone (calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium)

Electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride)

Sulfur

*Concentrations up to 1100 grams*

18

Trace minerals

Iron, copper, zinc, iodine, selenium, and others

are components of enzymes

components of hormones

19

Most common mineral difficiency

Iron

20

Zinc

present in structure of nearly 100 enzymes

involved in cell replication and cell division

Ex. would healing,growth, strength gains

Excess amounts = diminish the immune response

21

Myglobin

An iron containing protein found in muscle cells

Moves oxygen into the cell

22

Iron

Ability to move electrons between atoms

involved in the development of the myelin sheath and of neurotransmitters

23

Metalloenzymes

Enzymes with iron, zinc, or other metals as part of their structure

24

Carcinogen

A cancer-causing compound

detoxified by iron

25

cofactor

binds to the enzyme to activate it

ex. iron

26

Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin)

produce and maintain the myelin sheath

Activates folate, and folate activates it

 

27

Deficiency of B-12

low intake of B-12

low intake of folate

failure to produce instrinsic factor

Results: severe neurological problems, numbness, paralysis

28

intrinsic factor

A substance secreted by the stomach needed for the absorption of vitamin B-12

29

Folate is necessary for

Development of spinal column during pregnancy

30

Spina bifida

A neural tube defect that can be characterized by problems in gait and mental retardation

*result of a low intake of folate*

31

Folate is also necessary for what

DNA synthesis

Deficiency - halt cell growth

32

fortification

the addition of a nutrient to a food

33

Potassium

Major positively-charged intracellular ion

critical in the conduction of nerve impulses

*can cause cardiac arrhythmia*

result of binging or sweating too much

34

Sodium

Exchanged with potassium to trigger muscle contraction

defiency: decrease performance capability and may cause muscle cramping

35

Chromium

Enhances the ability of insuline to bind to its receptor on the cell membrane

helps move glucose and amino acids into the cell

promotes synthesis and glycogen repletion

36

Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)

Necessary for the synthesis of non-essential amino acids

needed for neurotransmitter synthesis

defiency: neurological symptoms

37

Vitamin C

Acts as a cofactor, along with iroin, in the synthesis of collagen

38

collagen

a protein making up connective tissue

39

Scurvy

A disease caused by a defiency of vitamin C

40

free radical

An atom containing an unpaired electron in its outer shell, and making it very reactive

41

singlet

An unpaired electron in the outer shell of a free radical

42

Carcinogenesis

The process of cancer develoment

result of free radical damage to DNA

43

provitamin

A vitamin precursor

Used to prevent oxidative damage by reacting with free radicals

44

Vitamin C and free radicals

Donates electrons to free radicals

45

Deficiency of Vitamin E

Breakdown of red blood cells not protected against oxidative damage, called hemolysis

46

Most important job of Vitamin A

47

Defiency of Vitamin A

night blindness

48

Precursor

A chemical compound that can be readily made by the body into another compound

*Beta-carotene is a precursor to Vitamin A*

49

Differentiation

The process by which stem cells mature into specialized organ cells

Vitamin A is necessary for cell differentiation

50

erythrocytes

red blood cells

51

Anemia

A condition of having an insufficient number of red blood cells, resulting in a reduction of oxygen transport capacity and thus an inability to produce enough energy for the body

52

Folate is necessary for what?

DNA synthesis

53

Macrocytic anemia

Folate deficiency anemia characterized by very large red blood cells

54

Megaloblastic

Folate deficiency anemia characterized by very large red blood cells

55

Pernicious anemia

Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia

56

Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine) is necessary for what

The synthesis  of hemoglobin

57

Ferritin

Storage protein for iron

58

Transferrin

Transport protein for iron

59

Vitamin K is important for what?

blood clotting

60

prothrombin

A blood clotting factor

Vitamin K is a coenzyme in the synthesis of this

61

Coenzyme

A substance, often a vitamin, that activates an enzyme

62

Pellagra

Niacin deficiency disease

63

Beri-beri

Disease caused by deficiency of thiamin

64

Thyroxine

Thyroid hormone

Regulates metabolism

Iodine is a component of it

65

Goiter

An enlargement of the thyroid gland seen in iron deficiency

66

hydroxyapatite

Compound of calcium and phosphorous that makes up bone

67

Epiphyseal plates

Sites of active growth in the bone

68

Remodeling

The continual process of bone formation and resorption

69

Osteoblasts

Cells that form bone, laying down protein matrix and mineral

70

Osteoclasts

Cells that break down bone and release mineral into the bloodstream

71

Resorption

Uptake of calcium from bone

72

Calcitonin

Hormone from the thyroid gland that lowers blood calcium

73

Parathyroid hormone

Hormone from the parathyroid gland that raises blood levels of calcium

74

Rickets

Bone deformation in growing children caused by vitamin D deficiency

75

Osteomalacia

Defiency disease in adults caused by vitamin D defiency

76

Osteocalcin

A protein involved in bone turnover, formed by vitamin K

77

Osteoporosis

A chronic disease usually seen in the elderly resulitng in porous, weakend bone prone to fracture

78

Whole food

A form in its natural state, as it came from farm, field, or other source, and still resembles that source

79

Fortified food

A food with added nutrients

The nutrients are not naturally present in the food

80

Supplement

Nutrient obtained in purified and concentrated form, and consume as a pill or drink

81

Retinol

The active form of vitamin A

82

Carotenoid

a group of chemicals where some are precursors of retinol

ex. beta-carotene

83

Beta-carotene

common plant precursor of retinol

84