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Flashcards in Practice Exams - 3 Deck (150)
1

During anaerobic activity, which of the following is true?

1) Oxygen is required for glycolysis. 

2) Fat is used as fuel.

  3) Blood glucose is taken up by muscle and stored as glycogen.

  4) Glucose is not oxidized completely, leading to lower pH of muscle.

2

Nutritional recommendations for exercise include

 low CHO, low fat, high protein
  2) low CHO, high fat, high protein
  3) high CHO, low fat, adequate protein
  4) high CHO, no fat, adequate protein

3

Vitamins that can be obtained from the diet in both the active form and in a precursor form include

vitamin A and vitamin B3

4

Alternate name for vitamins B1, B2, and B3 are (in order)

thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin

5

The B vitamins generally function

3) as coenzymes in the release of energy from food.

6

Pregnant women need to avoid excessive amounts of which vitamin due to its teratogenic effects on the fetus?

vitamin A

7

Which of the follwoing is NOT a characteristic of fat soluble vitamins?

They are readily excreted through the kidneys.

8

The vitamins most important to normal bone metabolism and bone strength are

vitamins D, A, and K

9

The vitamin that requires intrinsic factor to be absorbed is

cobalamin

10

The two vitamins that hhave Estimated Safe and Adequate Dailly Dietary Intake (ESADDI) ranges and NOT RDAs are

pantothenic acid and biotin

11

Vitamin B6 can cause a type of anemia because it is necessary for

synthesis of hemoglobin

12

Which statement about vitamin C is true?

It should be avoided in supplements of >1000 mg. per day.

13

Good food sources of folic acid include

leafy greens, orange juice, and beans.

14

The vitamins that function as antioxidants are

vitamins C and E

15

Which statement about beta-carotene is true?

It is a precursor to the active form of vitamin A but does not build up to toxic levels in the body.

16

Which of the following is (are) advised in treatment of essential hypertension?

decrease sodium intake

17

What type of food might worsen high blood pressure?

processed entrees

18

Which of the following are roles for the mineral calcium?
1.  Bone/teeth structure
2.  Transmit nerve messages
3.  Component of DNA
4.  Blood Clotting
5.  Component of hormones
6.  Fluid balance of body

1, 2, 4

19

Which menu below is most notably LOW in the stated mineral?

iron: toasted cheese sandwich on unenriched bread, banana, carrot/celery sticks, tea

20

Which of the following would improve iron absorption from plant foods?

including vitamin C-rich food in a meal

21

"Hitting the wall" or "bonking" occurs when the body runs out of

glycogen

22

Which is NOT a nutrition-related benefit of exercise?

decreases need for vitamins and minerals, particularly anti-oxidants

23

Which is NOT a characteristic of aerobic exercise?

lowered metabolic rate

24

Which is NOT a source of glucose for muscle fuel?

adipose

25

Which is the only fuel the body is capable of using under anaerobic conditions?

carbohydrate

26

Maximal heart rate is figured by subtracting your age from _________.

220

27

Where is glycogen stored?

1) muscle
  2) liver
  3) blood glucose
  4) answers 1 and 2
  5) answers 2 and 3

28

Which of the follwing is an example of aerobic exercise?

distance running

29

Protein needs for atheletes are

1 to 1.5 g/kg body weight

30

You've been training for a 100-mile bicycle tour. It would help you to do all of the following except

consume more calories than usual before the event

31

The eating disorder that affects the greatest number of college women is

binge eating disorder

32

The following set of features best describes which eating disorder? Recurrent binges, especially of high kcal food; inconspicuous bingeing; high body weight for height; awareness of abnormal eating pattern; obsessive-compulsive tendencies; fear of inability to stop bingeing; binges frequently associated with stress; increasing social isolation, and decreasing functioning as weight increases.

binge eating disorder

33

Which complications would you be most likely to observe in someone with anorexia nervosa?

arrhythmia, lunago, hypothermia, amenorrhea

34

Which complications would you be most likely to observe in someone with anorexia nervosa?

arrhythmia, lunago, hypothermia, amenorrhea

35

Which eating disorder(s) is (are) most commonly treated on an outpatient basis?

) anorexia nervosa
  2) bulimia nervosa
  3) binge eating disorder
  4) 1 and 3
  5) 2 and 3

36

The constipation observed in people with bulimia nervosa is due to

chronic laxative abuse

37

The arrhythmia and heart complications observed in advanced anorexia nervosa is largely a consequence of

1) low protein intake and high CHO intake
  2) low protein intake and low CHO intake
  3) electrolyte imbalance and micronutrient deficiencies
  4) 1 and 3
  5) 2 and 3

38

Which of the follwoing statements about disease etiology (origin) best applies to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa?

caused by linking of self-worth to appearance and food intake

39

Successful treatment of anorexia nervosa usually includes which of the following features?
1.  family therapy
2.  individual psychotherapy
3.  feeding, which may include intravenous or tube feeding
4.  exercise
5.  delay in starting therapy until patient has "hit bottom" in terms of body weight

 1, 2, 3

40

The mortality rate of people who starve themselves, including both those with and without treatment, in the condition know as anorexia nervosa is approximately

less than 10%

41

People who either starve themselves or binge and purge are more often than not

 1) female
  2) teens or early twenties
  3) of low socioeconomic status
  4) all of the above
  5) 1 and 2 only

42

For students on this campus, which is the best place to start if the person is concerned about herself or a friend having an eating disorder?

The Healthy Eating Program of Counseling and Consultation Services

43

The treatment program of a person with bingeing/purging eating disorder (bulimia nervosa) may include the following
1.  group therapy
2.  nutritional rehabilitation prior to any psychological help
3.  medications
4.  psychotherapy and behavior modification

 1, 3, 4

44

Bulimia nervosa is

when a person binges twice or more times per week for 3 months.

45

A bulimic who purges by vomiting may have this irreversible health effect:

pitted teeth

46

To best promote general health, you should be exercising at a(n) ________________ intensity.

aerobic

47

Which is NOT a benefit of a relatively high-carbohydrate diet for an endurance athelete or regular aerobic exerciser?

greater muscle flexibility

48

Commercial sports drinks provide CHO and electrolytes in amounts that are ____________.

optimal for rapid absorption during exercise

49

Exercise enhances nutritional adequacy because

It creates greater caloric expenditure, requiring a higher caloric intake and thus promoting a higher nutrient intake.

50

In aerobic activity, which of the following occurs?

Both glucose and fat are burned as a fuel.

51

1. Which is NOT characteristic of aerobic exercise?

e.  cardiovascular benefits

52

2. Which is NOT usually a characteristic of a resistance exercise, such as weight training?

requires high oxygen consumption

53

3. Which of the following correctly matches the vitamin and its deficiency disease?

b.  vitamin D - osteomalacia

54

4. Which is NOT true of blood glucose as a muscle fuel?

c.  Increased by muscle glycogen released into blood.

55

5. Lactic acid buildup causes

muscle fatigue

56

6. Vitamins and minerals are important for active people because they __________.  Active people should obtain them from
__________.

b.  release energy from macronutrients.   nutrient-dense foods.

57

7. The fat soluble vitamins are

A,D,E,K

58

8. The disease associated with vitamin C deficiency is

scurvy

59

9. Which function as co-enzymes?

b.  B vitamins

60

10. Which deficiency disease would strict vegetarians (vegans) be most likely to develop?

pernicious

61

11. What does the thyroid release to stimulate osteoblasts?

a.  calcitonin
b.  parathyroid hormone
c.  vitamin D precursor
d.  both a and b
e.  both b and c

62

12. What differentiates osteoporosis from vitamin D deficiency?

a.  loss of mineral
b.  loss of protein matrix
c.  estrogen's protective effect
d.  a and b
e.  b and c

63

13. Bone mass can be acquired to about what age?

35

64

14. Amenorrhea most often occurs in which eating disorder, and causes which problem?

a.  anorexia, bone loss

65

15. Strength building exercise helps prevent

a.  pica
b.  osteoporosis
c.  loss of ability for self-care in elderly
d.  a and b
e.  b and c

66

16. When fat is used as muscle fuel, from where does your body obtain the fat?

a.  dietary fat
b.  intramuscular fat
c.  subcutaneous fat
d.  visceral fat
e.  all of the above

67

17. What is the physiological advantage of using fat as fuel?

a.  The body can store much more energy as fat than as glycogen.
b.  Fat provides more energy per gram than does carbohydrate.
c.  No lactate is produced from fat utilization.
d.  a and b
e.  all of the above

68

18. Which of the following statements is FALSE?

a.  High intensity workouts burn mostly fat.

69

19. The RDA for protein is 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. Protein needs for athletes may be as high as

b.  1 to 1.5 g/kg body weight

70

20. You're doing a 100-mile bicycle tour.  It would help you to do all of the following except

b.  consume more calories than usual the day before the event

71

21. Deficiency of which of the following vitamins leads to night blindness followed by complete blindness as the deficiency
worsens?

a.  vitamin A

72

22. Oxidative damage to DNA may result in cancer. Which vitamin is thought to be protective against this?

c.  E

73

23. Anti-coagulants inhibit blood clotting by antagonizing (preventing the action of) a vitamin. Which one?

d.  K

74

24. Which is NOT a function of vitamin C?

d.  release of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat

75

25. Cereal and grain products are now fortified with folate.  Why?

a.  Enrichment is an effort to prevent neural tube defects.

76

26. Which of the following minerals is listed next to its correct function?

a.  iron- transport of oxygen to cells
b.  iodine- regulation of basal metabolic rate
c.  potassium- component of stomach acid
d.  a and b
e.  b and c

77

27. Purging by vomiting or laxative abuse may lead to excessive losses of _______, which may result in _______. 

a.  potassium, heart failure

78

28. A major difference between how vitamins and minerals are utilized by the body is that minerals

a.  often are part of the body structure

79

29. Water is typically _____ per cent of total body weight in an adult.

b.  50-60

80

30. Acid-base reactions take place in water because of water’s

d.  tendency to dissociate into hydrogen and hydroxyl ions.

81

31. Which is NOT an effect of a relatively high- carbohydrate diet for an endurance athlete or regular aerobic exerciser? 

e.  greater tendon and ligament flexibility

82

32. In aerobic activity, which of the following occurs?

b.  Both glucose and fat are burned as fuel.

83

33. What type of food would be most likely to worsen high blood pressure?

a.  highly processed entrees

84

34. Which process for using glucose as fuel is described here: Lactate is produced from glucose due to incomplete glucose
breakdown; predominates in short events of high intensity. 

c.  anaerobic glycolysis

85

35. Assuming all are done at the same intensity, which exercise pattern will consume the most energy in total?

a. one 30 minute workout

b. two 15 minute workouts

c. three 10 minute workouts

d. all of the above are same amount of energy

86

36. Which statement about minerals is NOT true?

a.  Minerals occur in nature as salts and may dissociate into ions under the right conditions.
b.  Ions are electrolytes and conduct electricity.
c.  Minerals are involved in both fluid balance and acid-base balance in the body.
d.  All of the above are true.
e.  None of the above are true.

87

37. The mineral found in greatest quantity in the body is

d.  Calcium

88

38. In addition to bone, calcium functions in what capacity listed below?

a.  nerve impulse transmission

89

39. Which process extracts the most energy from a molecule of glucose? 

aerobic metabolism

90

40. Which explains why B-vitamin deficiencies lead to exhaustion and fatigue? 

d.  insufficient amounts of coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are present

91

41. Excessive doses of which vitamin can cause flushing (a tingling and reddening of the skin)

c.  niacin

92

42. Which food group is rich in vitamin C? 

c.  fruits

93

43. Which of the following substances serves as a precursor for vitamin A in the body? 

b.  beta-carotene

94

44. Which of the following is most likely to cause vitamin A toxicity?

a.  retinol supplements

95

45. Which can the body use for the synthesis of vitamin D?

a.  cholesterol

96

46. The main function of vitamin E in the body is as an 

anti-oxidant

97

47. Which vitamin helps to lower the risk of neural tube defects?

e.  folic acid

98

48. Which food is the best source of folate (folic acid)

dark green leafy vegetables

99

49. Which of the following does NOT play a role in red blood cell synthesis? 

niacin

100

50. A micronutrient that facilitates oxidation and is used in myoglobin is

iron

101

1. Complications (effects) of Bulimia in someone who purges include

a.  Ulcers, pitting of the teeth and electrolyte imbalance

102

2. Athletes are usually told to maintain a diet that is closest to: 

b.  20% fat, 15% protein, 65% carbohydrate

103

3. Intrinsic factor is required for the absorption of 

d.  vitamin B-12

104

4. The vitamin formed in the skin by the action of ultraviolet light on a derivative of cholesterol is ________.

b.  vitamin D

105

5. Too little of which vitamin is related to increased risk of neural tube defect?

e.  folic acid

106

6. What major purpose do vitamins serve in the body?

b.  regulators of biochemical processes

107

7. The most dangerous vitamins to ingest in high doses are 

d.  vitamin D and retinol

108

8. A source of heme iron would be:

fillet of fish

109

9. A goiter is caused by the prolonged deficiency of 

e.  iodine

110

10. Which of the following minerals is of primary importance in maintaining extracellular fluid concentrations?

c.  sodium

111

11. Which is NOT a source of glucose for muscle fuel?

adipose

112

12. Which is NOT true of blood glucose as a muscle fuel?

c.  Increased by muscle glycogen released into blood.

113

13. Which process produces lactate (lactic acid) as a byproduct?

anaerobic glybolysis of glucose

114

14. Which is NOT a beneficial effect of a high carbohydrate diet to a regular exerciser ?

d.  increased body fat

115

15. Which food contains the most readily absorbable form of iron?

fish

116

16. Which statement is FALSE about bulimia?

e.  The disorder is not life threatening.

117

17. Which eating disorder generally requires hospitalization (inpatient treatment)?

c.  anorexia nervosa

118

18. Which medications are most widely used to treat eating disorders?

b.  anti-depressants

119

19. Which is a predisposing factor for pica?

a.  mineral deficiency
b.  poverty
c.  mental retardation
d.  answers a and b
e.  answers a, b and c

120

20. Maximal heart rate is estimated by subtracting your age from ________?

c.  220

121

21. Lactic acid buildup causes

d.  muscle fatigue

122

22. What statement is FALSE concerning the effect of training?

a.  Aerobic training fails to develop the cardiovascular system.

123

23. If a person consumes more water-soluble vitamins than needed, the excess is usually

excreted in the urine

124

24. Which function as co-enzymes?

b.  B vitamins

125

25. Which play a role in the release of energy from macronutrients?

b.  B vitamins

126

26. Which deficiency disease would strict vegetarians (vegans) be most likely to develop?

c.  pernicious anemia

127

27. Which B vitamin deficiency causes dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death?

c.  Niacin

128

28. The most common cause of mineral overload in the human body is 

d.  supplements

129

29. When was the first description of anorexia nervosa in a medical journal?

1969

130

30. What characteristic do all eating disorders have in common?

d.  psychological origin

131

31. Electrolyte imbalance occurs in which eating disorder and causes which problem?

b.  bulimia, arrhythmia

132

32. What is the source of glucose for anaerobic and aerobic exercise as that exercise is begun?

c.  muscle glycogen

133

33. Excessive consumption of which of the following can cause birth defects in a growing fetus?

retinol

134

34. Which mineral functions mainly as a component of enzymes?

c.  magnesium

135

35. Which may serve to increase blood pressure in the short term?

a.  stress
b.  exercise
c.  high fruit and vegetable consumption
d.  a and b
e.  all of the above

136

36. What role do buffers play in the blood?

a.  They keep the blood at a constant pH.
b.  They promote homeostasis.
c.  They maintain constant temperature and mineral content of blood.
d.  a and b
e.  all of the above

137

37. Calcium from which source is best absorbed?

dark green, leafy vegetables low in oxalic acid

138

38. The eating disorder that affects the greatest number of college women is 

c.  binge eating disorder

139

39. Approximately _____ per cent of total body weight is water in adult humans.

b.  50-60

140

40. Typical water losses, which vary with activity, temperature, and humidity, are about _____ liters per day.

2-3

141

41. The primary organ responsible for regulating water and electrolytes is the 

kidney

142

42. If you were to drink a glass of water without taking any food, which of the following would be the site of
greatest water absorption?

c.  small intestine

143

43. Which statement is true about body water distribution?

c.  Dissolved proteins attract and hold water.

144

44. The major site of alcohol removal is the

a.  liver

145

45. Which are NOT congeners discussed in class? 

saturated fat

146

46. Moderate alcohol intake does NOT increase the risk of which disease? 

d.  heart disease

147

47. Which is a fate of pyruvate produced by anaerobic glycolysis? 

a. converted into lactate and exorted from muscle cell to blood

b. converted into lactate, then back into glucose by liver

c. broken down into CO2 and water by aerobic metabolism

d. converted into lactate, which accumulates in muscle cell, lowering pH

e. all of the above

148

48. What is the leading cause of mental retardation in the US? 

e.  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

149

49. Which substance does NOT contribute to the maintenance of blood glucose during prolonged exercise? 

a.  muscle glycogen

150

50. Which is likely to contribute the smallest amount of energy during exercise? 

protein