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Most people can reduce their kcal intake most significantly by decreasing the amount of ______________ they consume.

1) carbohydrate
  2) fat
  3) protein
  4) alcoho


What is the most typical outcome of severe dieting for weight loss?

feelings of deprivation that lead to bingeing and weight regain


What is a likely repsonse of the body to very severe energy restriction?

4) Basal metabolic rate (BMR) slows down.


Protein deficiency can cause

1) neurotransmitter stimulation.
  2) poor immune function.
  3) kwashiorkor.
  4) both 1 and 2.
  5) both 2 and 3.


Which is the ideal measure of obesity?

1) body mass index
  2) skinfold calipers
  3) impedance analysis.
  4) ideal weight tables
  5) All of the above methods contain flaws.


Which is characteristic of the "apple" body shape?

1) high visceral fat distribution
  2) increased risk of chronic disease
  3) increased fat deposited on hips
  4) both 1 and 2
  5) both 2 and 3


What determines the sequence of amino acids in a protein?

1) DNA
  2) genes
  3) peptide bonds
  4) a and b
  5) b and c


What plant protein has protein quality similar to that of animal protein?

3) soy


What is the leading cause of death in the US?

1) cancer


Which of the following statements is FALSE?

1) Estrogen is protective against heart disease.
  2) LDLs transport cholesterol to the arterial wall.
  3) Smoking is a risk factor for heart disease.
  4) HDLs increase with weight loss.
  5) None of the above.


What was a limitation of the Nurses Health Study?

1) It didn't include a truly low-fat consumption group.
  2) It didn't measure fat intake at an early age.
  3) The nurses involved practiced strict caloric restriction.
  4) 1 and 2
  5) all of the above.


Which method of body composition analysis directly measures subcutaneous fat stores?

3) Skin Fold Calipers


Daily walking is in which category of energy expenditure?

Physical Activity


The distinguishing element in protein is

2) nitrogen


Which of the following are NOT composed of amino acids?

1) peptides
  2) enzymes
  3) antibodies
  4) triglycerides


Which sequence of events best describes the cooking, digestion, and absorption of protein (as in a hard-boiled egg)?

Denaturation by heat-- denaturation by acid and protease in stomach and small intestine-- absorbed in small intestine as amino acids and dipeptides.


Protein is a constituent of blood clotting factors, blood transport proteins, lipoproteins, and structural components. Which of the following is NOT a structural component made with protein?

1) bone matrix
  2) muscle
  3) connective tissue
  4) cell membranes
  5) none of the above.


The protein requirement for most healthy adults is

2) 0.75 grams per kg body weight


A saturated fat is one in which

4) All the carbons are bonded with the maximum number of hydrogen atoms.


Which of the following increases the HDL fraction of blood lipids?

exercise, moderate alcohol consumption, estrogen, and weight loss


Soluble fiber affects blood cholesterol by

3) decreasing total cholesterol


The main transporter of cholesterol from the liver to the body's tissues is



Which of the dietary fats below affects the body by altering the type of eicosanoids produced, resulting in a prolonged blood-clotting time?

omega-3 fatty acids


Which process describes the route of cholesterol from the diet through the body?



What happens with the cholesterol returned to the liver?

It is used to make bile.


Which type of fat is solid at room temperature?



Which of the following lipoproteins likely contains the lowest proportion of triglyceride and the highest proportion of protein?



Which of the following statements about blood lipids and chronic disease is false?

1) Dietary cholesterol has a relatively minor effect on blood cholesterol in most individuals.
  2) Omega-3 fatty acids have no effect on LDL levels but do affect the production of eicosanoids so that the blood-clotting ability is decreased.
  3) Monounsaturated fats decrease LDL but have no effect on HDL.
  4) Trans-fatty acids will increase total cholesterol and decrease HDL.
  5) None of the above.


Which of the following blood lipid levels, in milligrams per deciliter, represents the higher risk?

total cholesterol>200, LDL>130, HDL<35


To prevent heart disease, the recommendation most applicable to normal, relatively healthy adults is

Keep total fat <30% of kcals, saturated fat <10% of kcals, and dietary cholesterol <300 mg/day.


The Thermic Effect of Food is

energy used to digest, absorb, and metabolize food.


Which is likely to be the best source of saturated fat?



Higher intakes of dietary cholesterol will generally ____________ the body's own synthesis of cholesterol.



Which is NOT a major source of fat in the US diet?

beans and legumes


Protein is often associated with increased muscle mass. Which of the following is true?

1) Protein supplements will increase muscle mass.
  2) Protein supplements will increase stress on the kidneys.
  3) US adults need protein supplements to increase muscle mass because our diet is low in protein.
  4) Exercise will increase muscle mass, and protein supplements are unnecessary for US adults.
  5) 2 and 4


What are some functions of proteins?

1) hormones
  2) enzymes
  3) steroids
  4) clotting factors
  5) 1, 2, and 4.


An essential amino acid implies which of the following?

The body requires the amino acid from the diet, can't synthesize it, and requires it for normal function.


Excess amounts of protein, not needed for synthesis, repair, or maintenance of the body tissues are:

excreted in the urine and the feces intact.
  2) excreted in the urine and the feces as amino acids.
  3) excreted in the urine and the feces as nitrogen.
  4) stored as fat.
  5) 3 and 4.


Triglycerides are:

1) glycerol and three fatty acids.
  2) lipids.
  3) fats.
  4) none of the above.
  5) all of the above.


Cholesterol is:

1) a sterol.
  2) part of bile acids.
  3) synthesized by the liver.
  4) none of the above.
  5) all of the above.


What is the fundamental difference between saturated and polyunsaturated fat?

degree of hydrogenation.


Which is good cholesterol and why?

HDL, because it scavenges lipid and cholesterol.


Atherosclerosis is:

1) part of the process of heart disease and stroke.
  2) the narrowing of arteries and arterioles.
  3) the formation of plaques on the walls of blood vessels.
  4) the process of a blood clot lodging in a narrowed blood vessel.
  5) 1, 2, and 3.


Plaque formation on the walls of blood vessels is due to:

1) a diet high in cholesterol and fat.
  2) genetic predisposition.
  3) LDL sticking to artery walls.
  4) high levels of LDL and low levels of HDL in the blood.
  5) all of the abov


Which of the following best describes basal metabolic rate?

The amount of energy used to maintain basic cell function, tissue growth and repair, respiration, circulation, and involuntary muscular contraction.


An overweight person wishes to alter their energy balance to lose weight. Which of the following is true of that individual.

They increase their exercise and decrease their kcal intake to achieve a negative energy balance.


Which of the following best describes the cluster of diseases that accompany obesity?

colon cancer, atherosclerosis, hypertension, non-insulin dependent diabetes.


Which of the following represents the best approach to treating obesity and maintaining weight loss over a five-year period?

dietary restriction, exercise, and behavior modification.


Which of the following statements best describes the obese condition?

Obesity is a chronic disease whose cause is genetic and environmental.


Having a "thrifty metabolism", or being an "easy keeper", was important for survival. Which of the following statements best explains why?

In environments which were susceptible to famine and drought, having an efficient metabolism and laying down adipose stores was adaptive.


2. The liver initially ships out triglyceride as:

b.  Very low density lipoprotein


5. In what form do lipids circulate in the blood stream?



6. Which are major dietary sources of fat as determined by NHANES?

a.  vegetable oils
b.  animal products
c.  grain products
d.  both a and b
e.  both b and c


How can you lower your total cholesterol level?

a.  reduce saturated fatty acid intake
b.  increase polyunsaturated fatty acid intake
c.  increase soluble fiber intake
d.  increase monounsaturated fatty acid intake
e.  all of the above


Evidence from the Nurses Health Study suggests that saturated fat promotes

colon cancer


Asian and Mediterranean peoples have a low incidence of chronic disease.  Americans have a high incidence.  What is
different in American lifestyles?  Americans practice:

b.  low fruit/vegetable, low fiber, low exercise


What determines the number of calories needed by the body for
involuntary activities only?

a.  basal metabolic rate


Which of the following is recognized by the
body as a foreign protein?

b.  antigen


What is a benefit of eating plant proteins instead of animal
proteins?  Plant proteins are...

a.  higher in fiber
b.  lower in cholesterol
c.  more biologically active
d.  a and b
e.  all of the above


Which is NOT useful in losing body fat?

b.  decreasing muscle mass


As body weight decreases, assuming daily routine and exercise patterns do not change, what happens to energy

a.  decreases


If your diet provides more than enough kcals to meet your energy needs and also more than enough protein for growth and
repair, in what form is the excess protein stored?

a.  fat


19. Which of the following statements about body fat is correct?

a.  Men should have about 15 % body fat by weight.


The processes of digestion, absorption, transport, and storage of nutrients are likely to use what proportion of a typical
adult’s energy output?

a.  10 %


21. Which statement(s) about protein is/are true?

b.  The distinguishing feature of protein, as compared with the other macronutrients, is nitrogen.


23. A diet too high in protein (and therefore low in carbohydrate) might result in

c.  extra burden on kidneys to excrete nitrogen.


24. Which of the following statements best describes high-fiber foods?

d.  They promote satiety due to their higher volume with respect to low-fiber foods. 


25. The largest component of energy expenditure is most typically:

a.  Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR).


26. Dieting (a chronic reduction in food intake) may result in:

a.  reduced metabolic rate
b.  reduced muscle mass
c.  increased BMI in the short term
d.  a and b
e.  b and c


27. The body’s resistance to dramatic fluctuations in weight, especially to weight loss, causes it to have a:

a.  set point


28. Each additional pound of weight is harder to lose than the previous pound. Why? What happens to energy expenditure as
we lose weight? Assume constant levels of activity

b.  Energy expenditure decreases.


29. Which group is most likely to respond to external cues to eat, rather than internal cues?

a.  the obese


30. A vegan can best complement grain products in the diet by eating ____________; complementarity is most important for

a.  legumes; vegans growing rapidly


31. The strongest evidence of a causal relationship between dietary fat intake and the development of cancer comes from

a.  animal studies


32. Which phrases relate to the indicated condition?

b.  heart attack: myocardial infarction, obstruction from a clot


33. The first chemical challenge to proteins during digestion occurs in the 

a.  stomach


34. Which is NOT a health risk associated with obesity discussed in lecture?

a.  ulcers


35. Which is the most accurate and reliable measurement of body composition?

a.  underwater weighing


36. A limiting amino acid interrupts protein synthesis because 

c.  it is the first amino acid in the protein’s amino acid sequence to run out.


37. Which reduces the blood’s tendency to clot and thus may help prevent heart attacks?

e.  omega-3 fatty acids


38. Which dietary modification is most likely to produce cancer in animals?

a.  high in polyunsaturated fat


39. Based on what we discussed in lecture, which of these organisms is most likely to have its cell membranes composed
primarily of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids?

a.  winter wheat (wheat planted in fall that remains in the ground over the winter)


40. Which is a significant delivery vehicle for triglyceride? 

a.  VLDL
b.  LDL
c.  chylomicrons
d.  a and b
e.  a and c


Which has the highest proportion of protein?



42. Why is linoleic acid considered an Essential Fatty Acid? 

The body can't synthesize omega-6 bonds


Glycerol serves as a backbone of which molecule?

a.  free fatty acids
b.  olestra
c.  phospholipid
d.  triglyceride
e.  both c and d


The omega number of a fatty acid specifies

a.  its valence
b.  number of carbon atoms in the chain
c.  first point of unsaturation
d.  location of the first double bond
e.  both c and d


46. A high ratio of LDL to HDL suggests

b.  a net flow of cholesterol into arterial plaque


47. Eicosanoids

b.  are formed from long-chain polyunsaturated acids


48. When absolute amounts of fat (number of grams) are considered, fat consumption in the US is 

c.  staying the same


49. The chemical properties of a protein are determined, directly or indirectly, by

a.  genes
b.  amino acid sequence
c.  protein structure
d.  all the above
e.  none of the above


2. Which will likely elevate blood total cholesterol and low-density
lipoproteins (LDL) to the greatest extent?

saturated fat


6. The liver transports triglyceride in:

b.  Very low density lipoprotein


7. Prevention of chronic disease starts with:

a.  Exercise, high fiber, low monounsaturated fat intake and sparing use of alcohol, salt and sugar.
b.  Salt and sugar.
c.  Exercise, high fiber, very high polyunsaturated fat intake and sparing use of alcohol, salt and sugar.
d.  Exercise, high fiber, low saturated fat intake and sparing use of alcohol, salt and sugar.
e.  None of the above.


An athlete in elite-level training for an endurance sport will probably expend an amount of energy equivalent to what
percent of their basal metabolic rate in physical activity? 

c.  50-125% BMR


12. In what form do lipids circulate in the blood stream?

d.  lipoproteins


13. Which describe(s) how molecules made of amino acids can function in the body?

a.  speed up biochemical reactions
b.  act as chemical messengers
c.  destroy foreign proteins
d.  regulate fluid balance
e.  all the above


15. Which of the following is likely to improve the LDL/HDL ratio, in terms of the prevention of atherosclerosis?

a.  monounsaturated fats


18. Which is the most common form of naturally occurring fats we consume?

c.  triglycerides


22. For diagnostic purposes, the American Psychological Association defines eating disorders as:

a.  psychological disorders


23. Which groups of vegans should take special care in planning their diets?

d.  Pregnant women and very young children


24. Which group needs the most protein per unit of body weight?

a.  young children


27. Which of the following would be the most desirable situation and would be the most likely to reduce your risk of heart

c.  an increased level of HDL cholesterol in your blood


30. To lose a pound of fat per week, you need to:

a.  Expend 500 kcals more per day than you consume.


31. Your basal (or resting) metabolic rate is most reliably and directly related to 

d.  your lean body mass.


32. Basal metabolism is

b.  the reactions that sustain key life processes.


34. Which has NOT been known to produce cardiac arrhythmias through electrolyte imbalance?

d.  binge eating disorder


35. Which lipoprotein contains the highest proportion of cholesterol?

a.  Low Density  Lipoprotein (LDL)


36. Which vegetable oil is the best source of omega-3 fatty acids? 

d.  canola


37. Which is NOT a function of lipid? 

a.  enhances food flavor
b.  primary storage form of energy in the body
c.  component of cell membranes
d.  primary source of energy for the brain
e.  source material for steroid hormones


Which of the following is NOT synthesized from cholesterol?

e.  insulin


. Based on what you know from this class, which eating disorder is most likely to have lowered metabolism as a

a.  anorexia nervosa


40. Based on what we’ve said in lecture, which eating disorder in this list cannot be placed on a behavioral continuum with
the others?

c.  pica


47. Why does carbohydrate have a protein-sparing effect? 

c.  Carbohydrate intake prevents gluconeogenesis.


48. Which is most likely to result from consuming an incomplete protein as a sole protein source? 

a.  inadequate protein synthesis


49. Which of these events occurs because of ischemia? 

a.  myocardial infarction
b.  atherosclerosis
c.  stroke
d.  angina
e.  a, c, and d